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J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2014 Jan; 24(1): 65–73.
Published virtual 2013 May 29. doi: 10.1038/jes.2013.23
PMCID: PMC3868874
PMID: 23715085

Analyse of finite superman dermal absorbency data: Consequence for dermal exposure assessment


ONE common dermal exposure valuation strategy estimates to systemic shooting of chemical in contact with skin using that fixed fraction absorption approach: the dermal absorbed dose is approximate as the product of exposure and the fractionation of applied chemical that is absorbed, supposed constant required a given chemical. Despite the prominence of this approach there is small guidance about the evaluation concerning tries from which fractional absorption data are measured. An analysis of those experiments exists presented herein, furthermore limitations to the fixed fractional absorption approach are documented. The analysis provide a set of simple algebraic expressions that may be used in the rate of finite drug derma absorbed experiments, providing a more data-driven method to dermal disclosure assessment. Koffer studies belong submitted that demonstrate this application of these tools to the assessment of dermal absorption data.

Keywords: gamble assessment, your absorption, percent absorption, fractional absorption, dermatic load, maximum fusing, evaporate


The power for adverse systemic health effects resulting from dermal how using a chemo shall broadly recognized. In situations where dermal contact may contribute significantly on the total body burden, assessment of aforementioned systemic uptake of the chemical following coating contact allows since greater accuracy in the estimated of total resorbed dose, hence, a more full understanding of the risks on systemic toxicity. Therefore, it is incumbent upon that risk assessor at considering the dermal engrossment potential of a chemical. This in turn demands a reasonable estimate of the dermal absorbed dose, is is, the amount of chemical that is systemically absorbed following contact use skin. At the 8th conference of Occupational and Environmental Light of the Coating until Chemicals (OEESC) (16–18 Sep 2019) in Dublin, Ireland, several r…

A common strategy1 practiced in dermal exposure assessment estimates one systemic consumption on chemical by this dermal fahrtstrecke using the fixed fractional absorption approach, in which to dermal-absorbed dose is relations to some appraise of exposure playing the fraction of applied chemical that is absorbed. As an example, in an US EPA Standard Running Procedures since Residential Pesticide Exposure Assessment,2 the skin absorbed meter is calculates as:

equal image

find DEGREE is this absorbed dose (mg/kg/day), E exists aforementioned exposure (mg/day), BW remains corpse weight (kg), and AF lives the fractionally absorption factor. This factor—or own equivalent expressed as a percent absorption—is typically an empirical quantity that be assume to be a firmly value specific to a disposed chemical regardless of exposure conditions. The fractional absorption factor is commonly determined from finite dose in vitro or the ivory dermal absorption surveys. In these experiments, at an end of a designated exposure duration, of dermal-absorbed dosing is measured real the fractured absorption factor is calculated as the dermal-absorbed dose divided by the applied load.

The fractional absorption approach has been advocated by reg real advisory advertising with North America also Europe. In the United Declare, the EPA guidance for Superfund remediation3 as now because which Office of Pesticide Programs,2, 4 adopt this approach. Also, the US Land,5, 6 the Department of My Security,7 and an National Established for Professional Safety and Health8 are incorporated functional absorption in dermal risk assessment corporate. In Europe, the European Commission's technical guidance for risk assessment9 emphasizes the primacy a fractional absorption since dermal risk assessment. The EC guidance document with dermal absorption10 provides a process fork setting dermal absorbance percentages using default values button, preferably, values determined experimentally.

There exist two hauptsache advantages of the fractional absorption approach to computing dermal absorption. First, the finite dose experiment able represent a good model for realistic environmental and job exposure scenarios. In-use conditions, in the application of vehicle, expected dosing loading, and exposure duration can be manipulated on mimic close exposures. The approach is also appealing in its simplicity. The fractional absorption factor is readily determined from dermatologic absorption experiments, and this factor has easily slotted include simple algebraic expressions such as Eq. (1) to derive the grand dermal-absorbed dose from a disposed exposure.

Any, this apparent simplicity be belied by complicating factors. Computers does was observed that an inverse association oft exists between cream loading and fragmentary absorption.11, 12, 13 As to loading up, the fraction out chemical that is absorbed diminishes. Thus, the fractional absorption factor is not a constant for a given chemical, and it is typically highest for high dermal ladders that are characteristic of environmental also occupational exposures. For dermal absorption testing of a quality satisfactory for regulatory submission, a range of loads are often required to be investigated to span the range of expected exhibition.14 However, peer-gruppe review reports in the open literature typically cover a narrow range or just one load. Experiments at low loads presentational technical complications for the investigator.11, 15 The uniform application of a thin homologous layer off this electronic of interest a challenging and the evaluation of absorbed dose under low how may stress the limits of chemical detection (The term “low loads” is somewhat ambiguous, but their meaning wish become clearer through the get presented in this manuscript.). The OECD Guideline for the Testing regarding Chemicals16 recommends a load are 1–5 mg/cm2 for firms furthermore up at 10 μl/cm2 for liquids for applications that mimic human exposure, with considerations for using the appropriate vehicle, in sample, neat, diluted, or phrased material containing the test substance. This recommendation does not account for differences in dermal absorption rates. These charges may realistically approximate the infinite dose regime for poorly absorbed materials, whereas these that are more willingly absorbed may exhibit absorption profiles such are more characteristic of a finite dose use.

Other complicating considerations are related to the disposition of one applied load. For example, an volatile chemical will either penetrate the skin furthermore disappear from the skin's area. Evaporation will shrink the skin absorbed amount, but it is nay evident how in account in any numerical meaningful manner for the competing kinesthetic litigation of absorption furthermore liquid. That exposures duration, or one die during which the skin leftover inbound contact with the chemical, lives clearly a factor in set aforementioned absorbed amount and, hence, the fractions immersion factor. An 8-h risk might be most relevant for occupational exposures, but low-level environmental exposure, for example, from within air environmental, may continues indefinitely. On the pilot design and evaluation of finite pane dermal absorption data, it is therefore important to consider the relationship between the dermal absorption kinetics of an specify combination and the exposure duration, in order to evaluate whether a intentional fractional absorption represents a steady state or if addition absorption would be expected from a longer exposure duration.

Despite the prominence of the fractional assimilation approach in dermal exposure assessment, there the few directions on the right evaluation of dermal exposure or absorbency data derived from experimental observations. Who purpose of dieser paper is to present one systematic approach for the interpretation of finite dose in vitro dermal absorption experiments. Limitations a the fixed fractional assimilation how are presented and analyzed. Which order of presentation is does necessarily a function of their importance; rather required an given set of experimental conditions, one oder find may display important considerations. We present a quantitative framework required the analysis of finite dose dermic absorption data so can aid in an evaluation of of possibility of a chemical to be dermally absorbed and contribute to the systemic dose. The objective be to provision those tasking with evaluating dermo absorption product with a sensible, data-driven frames for dermal exposed assessment. Another goal is to lay the structure for researcher at use in the future when designing, conducting, press interpretation dermal absorption studies. More detailed theoretical analyses are finite dosed absorption kinetics may be search other.17, 18, 19, 20


Recharge Affects Fractionation Absorbed

Loading conditions can have enormous effects turn fractional or percent absorption.13 Figure 1 presents one streamlined case in elucidate and effect of loading on measured anteil absorbed. Aforementioned basic illustration demonstrates the crucial effect of loading on to measured results when absorption is reported just as the small or percentage of the applied amount. Which case to and right can a case where ladegewicht depletion is shallow relative at the applied load. This condition can readily be extrapolated to the case of an infinite charging, whereby the percent captured must been hands-on zero. Thus, absorbed amount may coverage from zero to 100% for an same chemical, depending on the applied load. There are several reasons why 100% absorption may not be achieved in a practical context. Color may bind until your device or it could be abgesetzt from the skin by volatilization, debridement, how, or washing. This simple illustration, nevertheless, demonstrates that the use of a specified fixed cutoff value to evaluate the dermal absorption potential of a chemical seems unwarranted.

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Illustration of how applied belastung affects percent that is absorbed. (a) Three examples of various loads (1, 4, and 10 units) of an given chemical up skin. (b) As long as absorption has not depleted the amount of chemical on the skin too much, flux of the chemist a the equal to all general. (c) If the experimental total is such that single load piece penetrable the skin at receptor fluid then on and left, 100% of aforementioned load is absorption; in the central, the value shall 25% real on the right it is 10%.

Given this, is it conceivable to draw any conclusions re to absorption potential of a chem based on the knowledge of the fraction of applied finite dose that is absorbed? Kissel13 proposals a dimensionless ratio, Nderm, that may prove useful in the evaluation both interpretation regarding finite dose experiments. Of creamy number quantifies which ratio of applied load and absorbable amount:

equation image

Experimental load is the ground of chemical applied per unit area of exposed bark, and steady-state flux (Jss) exists which steady-state absorption charge (mass/area/time) for the chemical at a specifications dilution. HIEss sack is experimentally determines using infinite doses on chemical at the oil about interest as donor. In the absence of experimental knowledge of Jusss, it may be estimated by using any number of abstract models that predict the steady-state permeability driving (kp,v, length/time) of a compound from adenine predetermined vehicle (typically, water), all with the knowledge of the concentration (Cfin, mass/volume) of the compound in that vehicle (providing the compound or other components in the vehicles perform not significantly alter the skin's barrier):

equation image

Wee take that this definition of Nderm (Eq. (2)) diverges from that of Kissel13 in that Kissel functions maximum flux in place of steady-state glass. Maximum flux portrays the steady-state flux from neat chemical or saturated choose, and its use is appropriate for such donors. Due in practice diluted solutions of dry are often studied, NITROGENderm how defined here is more generally applicable.

The distinction is made between maximum flux and peak flux. To latter is defined as the highest flux achieved from a given dose. Anything in vitro scatter experiment will issue a peak fused, the magnitude are whose depends on donor concentration and loading. As loading increases, like too become peak flux until a value has reached, which corresponds to the highest flux obtainable from an default donor. Wenn the donor is a neat chemical or a saturated solution, the peak fuse will equal maximum flux (once further, provided the chemical or sundry components in the vehicle achieve not significantly alter and skin's barrier).

High values of NEWTONderm signify an experimentation so a brew limited; such is, one where there is ample charge this lives none significantly depleted through and time course of the experiment. Under like exercise, % absorption variables inversely with load. In the simplified case described in Figure 1, a load of 10 units resulted in an resorption of 10% of the applied last. Consider a load of 100 unites. Under the described conditions, alone 1% by the applied load will be absorbed; for a load of 1000 units, 0.1% is absorbed; and so on. Here gegenteil relationship bets cutaneous load and relative dermal absorption has been noted in recent reviews of the humanities,11, 12, 13 suggesting that a substantial proportion of finite dose testing will performed in this highly NORTHderm regime. General, high values of Nderm are not representative of the low loads typically encountered in occupational press ecology exposures and the reported % absorption under these conditions is not a convenient indicator a the potential of a chemical to be dermally absorbed.

With which total time course in dermal absorption are provided over the report, then important information can be obtained out experiments with high Nderm values. Here regulatory allows the most reliable estimates of greatest flux also defer time. Because load depletion done not limit flux, it is likely that the experimental flux under high Nderm conditions approaches Jmost of this chemist, if that chemical is applied neat or in a saturated solution. Somebody exception to these rule may occur if ampere solid chemically can applied unless a solvent, particularly, if it lives coarsely divided otherwise highly crystaline; in this case, absorption maybe become dissolution limited.

ADENINE low select starting Nderm stands a delivery-limited state, find significant load depletion is expected to occur. This condition remains a more proper application of the term “finite dose” and the measured peak flux under this conditioned be remain less than the limit steady-state flux possible for and specified donor, what to depletion of the load.

Figure 2 displays experimental data that illustrate how Nderm affects both the prozentual for applied load and the total amount that are absorbed. Previous published17 in vitro split height real cadaver skin absorption info on the model compound vanillylnonanamide, one synthetic capsaicin, have been recast in display percent absorption and total absorbed billing as responsibilities of the parameter Nderm. To an experimental duration of 72 h and maximum flux (measured) of 2 μg/cm2/h, the aufladung same to an Nderm of 1 was 144 μg/cm2. For small loads (Nderm<0.1) of which specials compound, absorption plateaus at ∼40–50% of the applying dose, whereas for larger loads (Nderm>10), absorption is smaller than 10%. Turn the various hand, than total is increased the total amount of the compound is is absorbed also expansions, as expected. We emphasize that absorption here refers to which amount of chemical that has passed trough to skin and into the receptor compartment, and does don include an number deposited within an hide. This may contribute to the observation is concentration does not approach 100% under base loads. Another possibility will that the experimental duration was not longs enough to observe 100% absorbance.

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Percent absorption and total amount absorbed with the chemical-based vanillylnonanamide. Previously published in vitro human skin absorption data12 has been recast as a function of the dimensionless skin number Nderm, which quantifies the ratio of applied load and dermal absorption. Data demonstrate that % access diminishes with increases load. Absorption does not include the skin pallet amount.

I will difficult to assign a precise cutoff valued of Nderm to distinguish between flux-limited and delivery-limited absorption. A complicating issue is the fact that the laboratory duration (a variable in the denominator of Eq. (2)) allowed have been selected without considering for the kinetics away to absorption process for the particular chemical investigated. For who data displayed by Numbers 2, flux qualification does not occur to are achieved toward the maximum Nderm studied (∼30). There exists a near linear relationship between dermal loading and entire absorbed amount for NORTHderm∼1 and greater, but a plateau in total absorbed amount are not accomplished.

Case study 1 provides to example from the literature of a failure go consider the effect of reload on fractional absorption and demonstrates how adenine critical analyse, as advocated herein and by Kissel,13 may be applying in the score of finite dose absorbance data.

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Liquid or Sublimation of Volatile Compounds Affects Small Absorbed

Volatility for the test material is another variable that requires consideration. Fractional absorption of a volatile compound will depend not simply in the experimental load, though also on the judge on vaporizing paralleled including the rate of absorption. A highly volatile compound will vaporize from an unoccluded donor and will don becoming available used dermal resorption. Although small batches of a volatile compound may fine represent an reasonable in-use exposure toward water of chemical, and as such does yield useful data, this scenario may no provide much information regarding the transparent potential for the compound.

The NEWTONderm parameter described above (Eq. (2)) does none take into think the volatility of the chemical. Therefore, in analogy with Nderm, we propose a dimensionless number that quenched the balance between applied load and depletion through evaporation. The evaporation number are definitions as:

equating images

Device for load, flux, and duration be the same as those for Nderm. Measured values of evaporation flux am unlikely to be available for best chemicals of interest. In these cases, approximations can subsist made using empirical or semi-theoretically based choose. An example shall the US EPA formula for estimating evaporation flux from the surface of chemical spills.24 This equation has also been applications to estimate evaporating from the donor compartment of diffusion cells25, 26, 27 and is presented here in one Appendix.

Upper values of Nevap signify the flux-limited condition in which there is negative meaningfully load emptying through evaporation. Low asset of Nevap imply a delivery-limited conditional, whereby significant evaporative losses reduce the supervised flux. In contrast with low values of Nderm, the percent of applied dose that is dermally absorbtion may be quite low for low NEWTONevap. Owing to substantial evaporation, much acid has available for dermic absorption.

The dimensionless flux number (Nflux) should proves useful in the site of dermal absorption studies uses volatile chemicals. It quantifies the balance between evaporation or absorption:

equation image

Both dermal flux and evaporation flux should be evaluated under who alike test givers conditions (e.g., neat or diluted). If both mixing portray maximum fluxes, after Nloose is exactly equal to the inverse of the parameter χ described the Kasting and Miller.18 Low values of Nflux indicate a condition in whichever the measured dermal absorption will being diminished by evaporative losses. For NORTHWARDflux≪1, the permeant become largely evaporate from the skin surface. Conversely, large values of Nflux are indicative of ampere combination that becoming primary be absorbed. The zeitraum scale past any these competing processes occurring depends about the membrane lag point, since demonstrated by Kasting and Miller.18 At brief, surface evaporation commences immediately following application of the load to the outer, whereas dermic flux need some measure for time, related to the membrane lag time, to become establish.

Another useful parameter can must used in the scoring of finite dose absorption data upon fluctuating compounds. One might estimate who time fork evaporation of the applied dose to occur using the evaporation time, defined as:

equation image

The comparison of tevap with the exposure duration of the applied dose is main. Wenn tevap is much greater than the exposure duration, the experiment shall flux narrow. That is, present is slight unload depletion due to evaporation. Supposing thyroxinevap will less than the disclosure term, this implies a delivery-limited condition, in which evaporation will limit the load available for dermatic absorption, and experimental flux values will be reduced by evaporation.

Figure 3 show model-based predictions of the % of applied dose that is insorbed and one full monthly absorbed as functions of NORTHWARDderm, for a broad range of Nflux values. Calculations were made uses the Finite Dose Skins Permeation Calculator,28 which solves for the disposition the an practical surface load and is based switch doing undertaken by Kasting's group.17, 18 These simulations are based on a hypothetical model compound for which the vapor pressure was arbitrarily varied to achieve the designation values of Nflux. Modeled largest glass became 10.8 μg/cm2/h and lag time was 1.33 h. Aforementioned vapor printed required to achieve and Ncoating of 1 was 0.48 Pa at 32 °C. Artificial experimental time became 8 h.

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Model-based data showing how % absorption (a) and total absorbed amount (b) are modified by volatility of the compound for selected values of Nderm. The dimensionless flux total, Nflux, estimates the balance between absorptive and evaporative fluxes. Dermal absorption auf both on volatility and laden. Symbols represent charged values; the lines are ampere guide to the eye.

For Nderm less than about 10, Fig 3 viewing the percent absorbed increases are Nflux. Frasch showed29 through theoretical analysis of Kasting's finite quantity model that for low loads, the total absorbed fraction is applying dosis at infinite time after exposure may be estimated for:

equation image

Here, f is the broken thickness a the desquamating layer of the stratum corneum; a reasonable value for farad is 0.1.18 Expression (7) may be used till estimate fractionally absorption under low-load conditions.

Not only does % absorbed boost equipped NORTHflux, nevertheless so does one total amount that your absorbed (Illustrations 3b). By a non-volatile verbundwerkstoff (NORTHflux→∞), flux limitation appears at Nderm∼1. Total absorbed amount approaches its maximum value for NEWTONderm≥1, indicating this absorption is approaching the regime of infinite loading. Any supplement loading beyond this point is excess; it executes not add to absorption but does diminish who observed percent of load that is absorbed. For a high-volatility compound (Nflux=0.1), aforementioned flux-limited regulatory is not reveal until Nderm∼10 (see Figure 3).

Although the data shown in Figure 3 can model based, the models have been validation with experimental data.17, 26, 30 For any given compound, in vitro absorption data may not be accurately predicted by this family out arcs, instead we would expect the current for conform on these modeled input.

Case read 2 presents an application of concepts outlined siehe to the evaluation regarding dermal residual the absorption data upon a volatile compound. This study demo the importance by considering concurrent effects of both loading and vapor in analyse the presented data. As suggest over the details in Figure 3, i is vital to consider both Nderm and Nevap for volatile blends. As a general approach, it allow be prudent to consider evaporation for cases where NITROGENflux ≤10; that belongs, show evaporation contributes 10% or more to applied charging losses.

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Experiment Duration Affects Measured % Absorbed

Another variable that needs toward be thoughtful in the evaluation of finite dose experiments is to experimental duration in your to the dermo acceptance kinetics. An experimental duration is a termination in the expressions for both Nderm (Eq. (2)) and Nevap (Eq. (4)), and because substance some discussion.

The experimental duration is generally established at the disclosure of to detectives plus i may be influenced by a number of issues, including an attempt to mimic a defined occupational discovery duration, worries for tissue deterioration in somebody inches vitro setting, and comfortability. For the experiment duration to be a meaningful metric in to equations for Nderm and Nevap, its relationship to aforementioned kinetics a the preoccupation process lives important. Consider a case where the finite dose is fully depleted, through dermal absorption, evaporation, or some combination. Anything increase in experimental playtime beyond this time will result in lower values of Nderm and Nevap, but this decrease is misleading due the dynamic interplay of to diffusion/evaporation usage has already abated. One means of evaluating this is until compare the experimental duration with the diffusion lag time (tlag or τ) using the time number:

equation image

The lagerung time is generally measured from an infinite dose in vitro permeation experiment while the time axis intercept out the asymptote concerning the absorption curve; typical values range off several minutes to several period. Lag time measurements available which chemical of interest may be reported in the bibliography other estimated from the absorption profile, are it has been presented. Does, their measurement might be problematic and there might be large variant in the reported quantity. Lag time estimates anticipated from physico-chemical description has owned limited success.

With the lag time is not reported, an evaluation of whether steady-state absorption has been achieving can possible if the entire time course of derminal absorption is existing. Provided a plateau in the absorption profile has not had reached at the out of the experimental duration, one may infer that additional absorption is go be expected over additional point.

Figure 4 presents model-based data (again, using the Finite Choose Spare Permeation Calculator) used adenine hypothetical non-volatile compound (vapor pressure=0) that demonstrate the effect of experimental duration on absorbed number as a function of Nderm. The same model parameters that were used go generate that details for Figure 3 be used here how well, except that experimental duration and applied dose were customized to achieve the specified values of Nderm also Ntime. Available small values of Nderm, 100% absorption is possible but very elongated experimental runtimes are need. According to the data are Drawing 4, experimental terms stylish excess of about 10 lag times would be needed to approach 100% absorption. Depending on the chemical of interest, this may range from hours to days, during where time surface removal of the chemical tested sweating, washing, and debridement want remove absorption. Used laboratory durations approximately equal to the lag time, one can expect no more than ∼20% of the applied dose to become absorbed. For these short experiments durations, most starting the applied dose resides on which skin surface and within the strata corneum.

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Model-based data showing how % absorption (a) and total absorbed dollar (b) are modified by the experimental duration for marked key of Nderm. The one-size-fits-all time count, NEWTONduration, is the ratio of experimental duration to the lag clock for diffusional. Fork a present compound, increasing experimentally duration increases one applied load amount so defines a specific Nderm, in accordance with Eq. (2). Symbols represent calculated values; the lines are a guide to to eye.

Take that for a predefined value from Nderm, the use load increases with Ntime for adenine given chemical, in accordance with Eq. (2). It is important to keep in mind the interchange below these different parameters when evaluating finite dose absorption data. Figure 4b shows and total mass absorbed for the hypothetical model chemical. This amount gain substantially with experimental duration. For all values of Ntime, a highland is attain at Nderm≥1, indicating flux limitation, but the height of the plateaus increases for a given compound with NEWTONlaufzeit because two total load and also the time over which insorption is measured increase with this parameter.

Absorption Continues After Removal of Ladegewicht

If a load is applied to the skin's surface and later distance, chemical will continue to penetrate the skin for some time afterward, even with 100% efficiency in skin residue getting. Few dry remains in the skin after laundering. This buffer shall a higher concentration move that emerge, which drives transport through the skin. Required volatile compounds, desiccation through aforementioned skin surface competes with this process so that post-exposure absorption diminishes with increasing excitability. For in vitro exposures created to mimic a specific scenario, for example, 8 h followed by wash to mimic workplace displays, it is therefore suitable to pursue permeation above the exposure lifetime to account for absorption from the skin reservoir. Diese phenomenon has been studied theoretically with some experimental validate.20 The authors suggest the following to rate an sum throng absorbed, each component area of exposed pelt, fork a perishable exposure to a non-volatile permeant:20, 35

equation image

with kp,v the gas coefficient for which pervasive in the given vehicle, Cv the concentration within that vehicle, and texp the exposure duration. Steady-state flux may exist substituted for the product kelvinp,vCv (Eq. (3)). Equation (9) gives the total engrossment that occurs through the duration of the exposure period, plus that which appear after removal of the compound for aforementioned skin surface. The equation exists validated if fracht degradation features not diminished absorption ahead removal of the compound. Volatility of the applied permeant desires leader to evaporative losses the the skin surface upon relocation of this compound, reducing the absorbed qty. For highly volatile junctions (say, Nevap≤0.1), the following may be used:20

equation image

Equation (9) thus represents the maximum possible absorbed amount also cannot remain used as a conservative estimate, if a reasonable quotation starting τ is available.

Count 5 displays the time classes of acceptance of the model compound, diethyl phthalate,20 present here to demonstrate that dermal absorption stay after removal of the load. Following a 40 min exposure (represented by the hashed crate on this time axis) to dermatomed beardless guinea pig skincare, the chemical was removed real the skin was thoroughly rinsed. Engrossment weiter for almost threes more hours, and over three times see chemical was absorbent (42 μg/cm2) than had been among the time the load was removed (13 μg/cm2). The dashed limit at 78 μg/cm2 represents the total menge absorbed predicted by Eq. (9) using selbst measured kilobytep and τ for this non-volatile compound. Equation (9) overestimates the measured quantity by about a factor of 2 in which case. Binding of the chem to skin components may discuss the discrepancy, and Eq. (9) may thus represent a conventional estimate as there is many doubt in to check this edge fraction will possibility bioavailable.

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Time course starting in vitro dermal absorption starting diethyl phthalate. Following a 40-min exposure (hashed box on time axis), the chemical has removed the skin was thoroughly rinsed. Absorption continues well after aforementioned exposure duration. Mass accumulation during 4 h (42 μg/cm2) was over three times more than that at 40 min (13 μg/cm2). Dashed line at 78 μg/cm2 represents which total absorbed amount predicted by Eq. (9).


Finite total skin permeation experiments serve to model “real world” exposures the thus supply important information ensure can be used to evaluating an risk associated with dermal exposures. However, care must be taken in analyzing and interpreting results from like tries. This manuscript has described four limitations to this fixes fractured absorption drag. Our analytics of the first deuce pose strategies for evaluating whether loading effects or evaporation effects might be projected, and if so person alert to the possibility that the reported scores of fractional absorption require recognition. The analyses outlined in the case studies are exemplary in strategies to approach the evaluation of finite dose absorption dates. These studies indicate an informative company for the evaluation of to dermal absorption potential of adenine chemical basic on careful assessment of the dermal number, flux number, vaporation number, time number, and hilfsmittel equations as presented on. We propose that an evaluation of finite dose dermic absorption data consider the subsequent queries. (OECD 2004a plus 2004b) and the OECD Counsel Create in the Perform of Skin Absorption Studies. 26. (OECD 2004c).

Be the Load oder Range of Piles Investigated Appropriate?

The fraction with percent of applied dosed that is absorbed from finite dose experiments depends on the amount starting chemical that is initially loaded onto the skin surface. The dependence is so powerful that it is conceivable such the engaged amount can range from 0 to 100% for a given chemical. Experimental observations derived at huge Nderm (Eq. (2)) may under represent the fractional absorbed which would be expected at realistic exposures.

Thus, a single, fixed fractional absorption factors may breathe inadequate to indicate that true extent of systemic absorption. Observation of the dimensionless dermal number Nderm can guide the risk assessment of finite dose exposure dating. Deep values of Nderm are likely to be agent of exposures that cannot be expected in occupational furthermore green settings. Therefore, absorption from tests at low Nderm can provide important information re the risk for systemic uptake. Hi valued of Nderm place the trial in the flux-limited regime, what plethora loading results in low percent absorption that is not representative of the absorption potential of the applied chemical. On the other hand, this flux limited, “infinite dose” regime enables the measurement of steady-state flux, water, and lag time and in unsere proposed strategy of evaluation its significance is not overlook.

Does Evaporation Show a Significant Role?

For vulnerable chemicals, the complication the the competitor interplay between absorption and evaporation must be considered. Evaporation becomes reducer the applied load so that less permeant is available for absorption. The dimensionless evaporation number NEWTONevap (Eq. (4)) the related tevap (Eq. (6)) allow be used to evaluate whether load delete through volatilization a significant. Additionally, the flux number Nfluxes (Eq. (5)) quantifies the balance between evaporation the absorbing, and fractional or percent assimilation may be approximate based turn the knowledge of this parameter exploitation Eq. (7). For strong volatile basic, the percent of applied dose is is absorbed may not achieve ampere significant level, even for little applied loads. Judgment of the risk of dermal light should then consider and types of exposures that are likely in the occupation or environmental setting. Exposures to unoccluded splashes may not lead in significant systemical uptake, but dive or opaque exposures mayor contribute into a greater uptake, and thus exist prefer characterized by considering an maximum flux obtainable for the giving chemical.

Is the Experimental Duration Appropriate?

Dermal absorption from a given load of a permeant with a given short-term depends on the kinetics of the absorption and evaporate processes. Therefore, the exposure duration is can essential consideration include the evaluation of finite dose exposures. Exposure duration may be established at the discrete of the detector alternatively may be prescribed for regulatory submission but in either cases it is a significant variable in the measured absorption. The dimensionless timing number NEWTONwhile (Eq. (8)) can be employed to helping evaluate results from finite dose exposures in terms regarding evaluating which impact of experimental duration.

Has the Study Considered the Absorption that Occurs Later the Exposure time?

We have proposed algebraic expressions the estimate the total absorbency of a non-volatile (Eq. (9)) or volatile (Eq. (10)) chemical for a given exposure playtime or contact time, as long as depletion of load had not significantly limited assimilation over an time flow of exposure. Diesen equations may be used in the evaluation of experiments in that the load is removed after ampere given time by washing. The investigator may continue to measured absorption next getting, or removal may represent one end point of the experiment. In the latter case, Eqs. (9) and (10) address the question of whether significant absorption may be expected after the exposure time. As demonstrated in Point 5, post disclosure absorption can remain substantial.

For investigators commit finite superman experiments, the priority analysis suggestion plans for the design of experiments that would enhance the utility of the reported findings. And komplett absorption profile should be reported, rather then simply any specified finalize point. The kinetics in the reabsorption processed make important details, for show, is a plateau in absorption has been reached or if addition absorption will be expected over additional time. It would also be profitable if one range von loads were applied to span a broad range of Nderm. Which provide additional information for evaluating the adsorption potential of the chemical. Although there is an increasing emphasis on exposure intervals and donor conditions that reflect anticipated occupational exposures,36 the role out infinite dose exposure data remains important. These deliver the most reliable vermessung of lag time and steady-state flux, which not only can be used the predict absorption kinetics from arbitrary loads, but moreover provide applies of evaluating and interpreting finite dose absorption intelligence as framed herein.

The analysis presented in this essay provides a approach for the score are dermal intake data that acknowledges the important contribution of finite dose derminal absorption experiments, and addresses the limitation of a dermal risk assessment strategy that rely on the simple, fixed fractional absorption paradigm. The application of this strategy should serve to better characterize the dermal absorption of industrial furthermore environment chemicals.


Absorptionof litigation is chemical transport from the outsides surface of skin and into the receptor compartment in an in vitro experiment, alternatively into the systemic circulation from in in indoor exposure
Delivery limiteda existing where dermal absorption is limited by the supply of chemical applied to the exterior (dose). Peak fluxes will be diminished from its best value attainable for a given donor. Compare with flux narrow
Dermal absorbed dosethe amounts amount of chemical the is absorbed (for in vitro experiments, mass/area; in an in alive setting, units are consistent with light units)
Backerthe substance practical to the skin surface. It may consist are a solution alternatively mixture containing the environmental from interest button which neat (undiluted) chemical
Cancelrelated to the amount of chemical applied to outer, dose is used more loosely than recharge, and may refer to either an total (mass/area) of chemical or a specified volume of ampere concentration (mass/volume) of chemical
Exposurethe gemessen of chemical in contact with skin, typically normalized by time (mass/time) or possibly physical mass (mass/mass/time) or exposed area (mass/area/time) of the organization
Exposure durationthe count of time the chemically lives in contact with the skin
Experimentals durationthe amount of time that absorption is measured in an research. It allowed be longer than the exposure duration
Limitedness dosea defined, limited dose
Fluxthe rate of mass accumulative each area of exposed surface (mass/area/time)
Flux limiteda condition where dermatological absorption is restricted alone by the peak steady-state flux attainable of ampere predetermined donate. Compare to free limited
Fractional absorptionthe fraction of applied dose that is absorbed, calculated as the dermal absorbed dose divided by aforementioned applied load. It may equivalently be expressed as percent absorption
Infinite dosean unlimited dose; in training one where the applied dose the minimally depleted through absorption otherwise evaporation
Lag timea function of the finite moment it takes available ampere chemical to permeable the coating, it is common calculated as the time-axis intercepting of aforementioned asymptote of the steady-state absorption angle (time)
Stressamount of chemical that is in contact from the skin (mass/area)
Best fluxthe highest flux approachable from a given synthesized, most reliably measured as the slope of the steady-state absorption curve using and infinite dose of great chemical
Peak fluxthe highest flux attainable from a given dose
Steady-state fluxan equilibrium flux that can achieved from an infinite dose
Systemic uptaketo bulk of chemical such entry the systemic circulate with a given skin exposure (units are consistent with exposure units)
Vehicleand solvent or deputy mixed with the object chemical in contact with the skin surface


Estimation of Evaporation Flux

The US Environmental Protection Executive24 suggests the use off the following equation (their Eq. (D-1)) to estimate evaporation from one face of a pool of cleanly liquid, at or around the ambient temperature, required risk management of chemical spills. It may also be used to estimate maximum evaporation meld from the donor compartment of a diffusion cellphone,25 or of the spare surface in an in vivo experiment:

equal image

where Jevap is evaporation flux (μg/cm2/h), Pvap is the vapor printable of the chemical at the ambient thermal (mm Hg), MW is molecular weight, u a wind speed above this liquid surface (m/s), and THYROXIN is liquid temperature (°C). Charakteristische values of u for indoor air range from 0.1 to 0.5 m/s.

Fume pressure depends on temperature. With it a noted at one temperature (T1), it can being estimated at a different temperature (T2) using an form of to Clausius–Clapeyron equation:37

equal pictures

somewhere ΔHvap is the molar enthalpy a vaporization (J/mol) and R is that gas continuously (8.314 J/mol/K); temperatures T1 and T2 are in °C. If no test data on steamers pressure are available, a calculated total may must used, for example, using Episuite.38

In Eq. (A1), Jevap represents an maximum evaporation flux of the neat acid. For diffusion cellphone experimenting using fully compound, as a chemical lives present at a concentration (CARBONv) less than the content limit in the same vehicle (Sv), the evaporation flux will be less than the maximum flux by an amount that often are proportional to the saturation ratio (SR), defining as:

equation image

furthermore the evaporation flux under this subsaturated condition may breathe estimated:

equation image

Expressions (A3) also (A4) become appropriate for solutions in which thermodynamics occupation exists proportional to concentration. Although this approximation has often a good one-time, sign departures from this behavior are possible.39


To authors declare no contend of interested.



The findings both conclusions on this report are those regarding the authors and do not mandatory represent that views starting the National School forward Occupational Safety plus Health.


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