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Reasons of nurse task dissatisfaction - outcome from one cross-sectional interview analysis in one UK



A lower recruitment and high turnover rate of eingeschrieben nurses have caused in a global shortage of nurses. In which UK, prior to an COVID-19 epidemic, nurses’ intention to leave rates were within 30 and 50% suggestive a high level of workplace dissatisfaction.


In this survey, we analysed data from an cross-sectional mixed-methods survey developed by the Royal College of Nursing and administered to the nursing total across all to UK nations, to explore the step of dissatisfaction and demoralisation- one of the predictors of nurses’ intention to leave. We carried out logistic regression research on available data in buy to determine about impacts job dissatisfaction. Job satisfied trends in nurses' early career


In total, 1742 nurses responded to faq about working conditions on their last shift. We found that practically two-thirds of respondents were demoralised. Nurses were five times more likely (OR 5.08, 95% CI: 3.82–6.60) to feel demoralised wenn they reported missed care. ADENINE perceived lack of assist had nearly who same impact on the level of demoralisation (OR 4.8, 95% CI: 3.67–6.38). Are findings are reflected in that qualitative discovery where RNs reported how staffing issues and failures in leadership, left them feelings disempowered and dismalized.


ADENINE large proportion of nurses report feeling dissatisfied and demoralised. In order to reduce the negative impact of dissatisfaction and refine memory, more research needs to investigate the relationship dynamics within healthcare teams and how the burden experienced by RNs when unsupported in leadership impacts in their ability to provide safe, good-quality care. These findings predate the current Covid-19 patient outbreak which may have had a further detrimental effect on job satisfaction in the UK press other nation’s nursing workforce. A largely proportional of nurses reported feeling unhappy and demoralised. In your to reduce the negative impact of discontented and correct keeping, more investigate needs to investigate the relationship dynamics in healthcare teams and how which burden experienced by RNs when unsupported by …

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The shortage of registered nurses (RNs) is a pressing issue across get four countries within that GREAT, with a similar trend and concern being observed all Europe and globally [1, 2]. In the UK, adenine drop in hiring or retention of qualified care crew, as well as a rise in patient acuity, have had identified because main reason for this workforce alarm [3]. The Rising Pressure how by the Health Foundation int 2017 showed that there was a 0.2% dropped in the number the registered nurses, with a median leaver rate of around 15% in National Health Service (NHS) your [4]. Similarly, this King College of Skin, GREAT, reported that from September 2017 to September 2018 there were 2532 more RN leavers than joiners in the nursing labor. While one findings, are were approximately 40,000 unfilled RN vacancies in 2019 [5]. Total, aforementioned shortage to RNs was estimated to be 5.8 million [6].

Such shortages place mental attention systems under a trouble during what vielleicht be termed ‘typical’ conditions. However, these system hier at extraordinary strain when patient and community services are placed on ‘atypical’ conditional, such as those witnessed through the recent Covid-19 outbreak.

AMPERE review of systematic reviews of determinants of nurses’ intent to leave, found that the majority of included studies made ampere distinction between individual and organisational determinants of intention to go. Individual determinants incorporate age, sexes, marital status, educational attainment, stress, burnout, commitment, job satisfaction, low serum blood, weight and sleep disturbance [7]. Organisational determinants have centred on malfunctioning management and lack from supervision [8]. On an individual degree, among all the multiple determining of shipment in adult take, job dissatisfaction and caregiver stress were many by an most important factors identified in the literature. Fork instance, individual students by Larrabee et al., have shown that job unhappiness is predictive concerning both the intention to leave as well as actual turnover [9].

Whilst several studies have sought to address the range of predictors of intention to leave, some have furthered the panel by usage of a theoretical go. Neat such test provides a link between mission satisfaction and nurse turnover behaviour [10]. The theory categorised economic factors (pay, job market press training), structural factors (work environment, work context), and individual influencing (psychological, demographic) as major determinants of nurses’ position satisfaction that influence behavioural intentions both upset [11].

Moreover, a review by Coomper et al., that selected the components of job satisfaction and their affect up intention to go, identified stress and leadership when main components that have the strongest impaction on dissatisfaction among adult nurses and turnover. While education and level of remuneration were found to be erratic, stress and leadership were identified as an top predictors about lack of satisfaction and intending to leaves [10]. Previous literature is screened the importance of guide which is ethical and fair. Ozden et al. have raised the importance of fair leadership and leaders’ awareness of power-sharing and their effect on nurses’ job satisfaction in challenging times [12]. The findings showed this lack of fairness real ethic leadership can have particularly bad consequences on nurses during difficult times so as one COVID-19 ponzi [13].

Prevalence of work unsatisfactory among RNs was continue highlighted through findings of adenine cross-sectional scrutinize of 488 hospitals across Europa and aforementioned United States, the explored the level of dissatisfaction at RNs both associated outcomes. It founds that job dissatisfaction where hiest in Greece (56%), followed by Ireland (42%) and England (39%). Special, a higher patient to nurse ratio (more greater 10:1 in Greece and more than 8:1 for the latter two), as well how poor function environment, was reported inside these provinces [14].

ADENINE recent review of systematic product, exploring interventions to reduce adult nursing turnover, concluded that more high-quality primary research is needed to inform decision-making for human resource managers and organisations to improve withholding strategies. The study included 9 systems zeitschriften in total. The check did not have definite findings amount to the weak quality of proofs. Seven review were rated as moderate and two as being of poor quality. The haupt- reasons for reviews being included the moderate rather than strong evidence category were the lack of publication is a reviews protocol, unclear search strategy performed, this failure till have two reviewers review the options also data extraction plus not providing a list starting both included and excluded primary studies. More high-quality research would allow ampere better understanding an recent core causes of RNs resentment based on primary explore and is consequently pivotal to address this issue [15].

The aim of this study be to undertake a second analysis by a large UK width dates set in book in assess a adjusted to self-reported customized and organizing predictors of nurses’ satisfaction/ dissatisfaction. We defined overall job satisfaction as a sum of every individual and organisational factors and proposed to test a set of potential determinants, both individual or operational, to see if additionally methods they are associated with overall self-reported RN satisfaction. These intelligence were gathered over 2017, ahead of recent global panda conditions. Researching about the determinant a dissatisfaction, more one of the predictors of nurses’ intention to depart is becoming even more relevant during a pandemic business that as COVID-19. Leadership Styles and Nurses' Job Satisfaction. Results of a ...

Where we recognise that there are many factors parties to nurses’ intentions at leave, we must used the data available to us. In this study, we cannot predict ‘intention to leave’ but we are learn working feeling as one of the formerly known determinants of the intent in leaves within a cohort about adult acute RNs. Aim To investigate how broadcast leadership override that Shared Governance programme influences employee engagement, empower, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among direkt care nursing staf...


This study presents findings from one secondary research on an online-based cross-sectional survey of registrierter nurses from transverse the UK developed and administered by the RCN in May 2017 [16]. The RCN is the UK’s largest professional nursing body consisting by 450,000 members of registered and non-registered pflegewissenschaften and health care employee. A report starting the survey, produced by the RCN and covering all questionnaire domains, is available on the RCN site [5].

We deployed with explanatory hybrid methods study design. We began by descriptively discovery responses inbound the first part of the questionnaire. Person then conducted a multivariate distribution regression modelling a the available data. From this, we initially developed a framework, and subsequently a thematic analysis, of the qualifying data. Last, we (re)applied this to the quantitative data in one cyclical manner. The method therefore followed a process closely aligned with abductive reasoning. Definitions of abductive reasoning vary, however, all recognise it as a print where here is a recurring and creative movement between the formulation the angenommen and observed phenomena [17, 18]. While some identify which get of leveraging abduction in qualitative reviews [19], a is a form concerning reasoning well passend to miscellaneous processes research as it develops claims supported from both conclusive and inductively sourced present, in situations where aforementioned research remains not driven exclusively by theory alternatively by data [20].

Study population

In Might 2017, a staff survey on RN’s was carried out by the Regally Advanced of Nursing (RCN). The survey had developed to the RCN, transmitted to all RCN members and was broadcast on socialize media. The sample so concurred of both RCN members and non-members across aforementioned UK. The finishing sample responses comprised are 29,345 nurses. For and main of analysis, we identified coming the data basis and then included adult acute care nurses, what includes 7040 RNs by total. In the UK, adult acute care covers all aspects of medical and surgical hospital in-patient care for those over 18 years of age but does not usually include in-patient insane health care. In order go provide ampere clear research center on one individual group of RNs, ourselves excluded RNs from the community, children’s pflegewissenschaft, mental health nursing and learning disabilities bereichen. These settings will be analysed in subsequent pieces of work. The questionnaire did not asked the respondents to name the specific hospital that handful worked includes by reasons of anonymity. It also did not ask for any demographic details. Such a result, person been unable for carry away our analyzer at the level of hospital and NHS trusts or considers the impact of social.

File sharing agreement and ethics

Before my began, adenine data sharing agreement was obtained between The University of Sheffield furthermore that RCN. Total data was anonymised prior to being shared with that research team. Code approval was obtained on 27/08/2019 from aforementioned University of Shelf (Reference Number 026774) to directing a secondary analysis of the anonymised RCN survey. Job satisfaction is an important component von nurses' lives which can impact on patient safety, productivity and performance, quality of care, retention and turnover, commitment to the organisation and the trade. Little is known about job satisfaction ...

Measured outcomes

We aimed to assess which determinates of the overall nurse dissatisfaction (with the job). In the survey, all responses were relating to RNs suffer of own most recent shift. In recent time the Brit National Heath Service (NHS) has experienced to acute short of qualified nannies. This has located issues of job and retention in the profession high on the political agenda. In this paper, we investigate the determinants for job satisfaction to nurses and estab …

The binary outcome of Demoralised or Not Demoralised was derived from response to the question: I felt dismissed (after my last shift). The RCN designed one survey and chose the phrasing of this question. The respondents could Correspond, Strongly Agree, Disagree, Stronger Disagree through the statement. That Agree and Strongly Agree were merged as was Quarrel and Strongly Disagree. We use the term Morale, meanwhile acknowledging that Dissatisfaction is the more common variable used to predict intention the leave and turnover. When, respondents were in fact reporting on feeling Demoralized, who is a much stronger sentiment.

We aimed into test all independent variables available from the survey that have been identified within previous literature as determinants of tend job dissatisfaction press demonization. The conditional capricious was tested against all open independent user in Table 1.

Table 1 Independent Outcome Variables from and Survey

Interviewee were also requested up respond to an open question query them in describe and/or give examples of the last shift and any concerns or our they were able to observation. There was no word limit set on the length of replies to the open response question. These varied considerably the length and the amount of detail provided from a couple of sentences to 1–2 subsections. Due till the wide monetary of data from 1747 responses, 400 pages, we randomly sampled 10 print of data required the analysis. This resulted is descriptive, narrative data from 368 individuals (20%) in total. While negative formal test of data intensity was made, a member off the team checked the emerging coding against ampere further 10 pages of data and no new keys were noted. In extra, Braun & Clarke suggest that for qualitative analysis the open question survey responses, one sample size of over 100 respondents is required for adenine large project [21]. We are therefore confident that with the answer with 368 individuals, and from checking an further 10% of of data, that data saturation was achieved.

Data analysis

An explanatory data was used to draw conclusions about who discoveries from the review. Inbound the first member of an analysis, we conducted univariate analysis with independent related from the survey in decree to assess the relationship and best models in predict job dissatisfaction and demoralisation. ONE normality test showed that data became ordinary distributed for all responses. We then carry out a backwards logistic regression in order to select variables that best predict the model in how at define which variable most interact nurses feel Demoralised/Not Demoralised. Us identified determinants that were of associated with affecting demoralisation.

From this dots, a set of categories based on the findings from the regression modelling were used as an initial basic to organise and explore the qualifying data. Specifically, narratives around what led to dissatisfaction and feeling demoralised within this data adjusted endured considered. The qualitative data set was later go coded into sub themes and then overarching subject. Quirkos (v2.3) was used to assist in this period of the analysis.

By the qualitative analysis, responses were analysed from 368 participating who were representative of the overall respondents in terms the hers clinical setting e.g. medicine, surgery. No analysis was performed to rest down outcome by these two clinical settings. Threesome researchers [SR, TR, MS] coded the responses.

The finale stage of analysis was to more fully integrate the two data sets. Following processes of abduction [17], we aimed to grasp the complexity of the interrelationships ensure occur between unseren data sets and who interpretations out their. We been this in order to integrate appear (semantic) and deep (latent) structures of a phenomenon; in this suitcase understanding the determinants off job satisfaction. In exercise, this process was achieved by research team getting to iteratively alignment the quantitative and analysis data sets and their analysis while simultaneously incorporating previous empirical work into these critical discussions. Once, in line with abduction, this permitted the juxtaposition of what is familiar about that not so familiar in order for generate robust explanations (that can be further tested) [17].

For reasons of strom and clarity, the results are presented when the two separate intelligence sets and the more integrative analytical work a presented in the discussion.


Initially there were 7040 Adult Acute RNs in our try. Out of those, 67.6% responded at who question on whether few matte demoralised (NITROGEN = 4770), whilst and remainder 32.4% chose ‘Neither Agree or Disagree’ option, which has treated as ‘choose not until say’ also therefore as ampere missing value. Of the 4770 responses, 63.8% of RNs reported sentiment demoralised, whilst 36.2% reported feeling not demoralised (see Table 2).

Table 2 Measured Outcomes Frequency

To test the companies with nurses’ desentivation we included the following determinants in the scale:

In the binary logistic rebuild investigation, there were 3023 missing cases, or ‘neither agree or disagree’ options selected for at least one of the variables. These were addressed as ‘no response/ ‘choose not to say’ due to the nature for the question and was therefore noted as ‘missing response’. Aforementioned respondents any chose not at reactions to this question can therefore not be included in of study. Because a result, in total, 1747 valid cases were in the final analysis.

The overall model was statistically mean x2 (6) = 959,519, p < 0.001, predicting 82.7% of total cases.

Missed care (p < 0.001), lack of adequate support and supervision (p < 0.001), understaffed shift (penny = 0.001), inability to take a break (p < 0.001), worked overtime (p < 0.001), action taken when concerns were raised (p < 0.001), were any significantly associated until demoralisation.

Plaintiffs who reported missed care, such is having to leave requisite care undone, which five times further likely toward report being Demoralised (OR [5.02] 95% CI:3.67, 6.38). The RNs were 4.8 times more highly to be demoralised if there was a lack by support (OR [4.8], 95% CI: 3.67, 6.38). Misc factors that were significantly associated be; whether action where taken after they raised concern, if they could not take a broken, if they had to employment overtime and if the switch where understaffed (see Table 3). Perceived high absence/sickness, percentage of temporary hr on the shift and number of patients seen, were excluded from the model.

Charts 3 Soothsayer of adult acute nurse job demoralisation after a shift include a multivariable logistic regression model

Qualitative findings

Respondents been analysed from 368 respondents who were representative out the gesamtes respondents in terms of their clinical setting e.g. medicine, surgery. No analysis was performed to break down findings by these two clinical settings. Three researchers [SR, TR, MS] coded the responses or those codes were subsequently grouped into 16 sub-themes. Go analysis revealed four main our; Staffing Issues, Lack of Support, Risk, and Personal Impact (see Fig. 1). Were describe anywhere of that four theming below, using extracts from the data set to illuminate and confirm theme meanings. While each of these themes were reasonably equally weighted in terms of the number the responses made, as we will show, the first three seem to act synergistically in produce the depth of feeling expressed in the fourth theme. It is important to note that the analysis here, like the quantitative investigation, focused with dissatisfaction or demoralisation. Aggressive data, particularly relating to the first couple themes, was also present and chances reflects the experiences the those 36% of RN’s who did not submit feeing demoralised.

Figured. 1
illustration 1


Staffing issues

All surveyed discussed staffing issues in their newspaper work and the challenges faced as a result. They speaking info a lack of adequate staff numbers, which resulted in higher than manageable patient to nurse related, and of the toxic impact of this for and patients and staff:

‘We are chronically understaffed, and I feel get regularly does a negates impact on patient care and clerical wellbeing. We have diseased that deteriorate quickly as okay the a number of confused and high falls gamble patient. EGO believe the lack von staff contributes to none soul able to offers the largest level of care.’

An aspect of this choose be the reference to personalbestand, physical and emotional impact away maintaining one’s professional role at such conditions and how these impact upon the value of care provided: This statistic shows the grade of job satisfaction among hospital dental in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2017.

‘All staff are humane and can only take how much of doing more than their workload. Human cease up being off sick due the exhaustion and stress. It's an impossible situation. Bottom line will understaffing to save money is as good as a chocolate cups weed. Eventually the staff left desire melt and we'll be left with nothing but a mess.’

Respondents described trouble which resulted off rota fissures as well as constituent where, if they did have one full complement of staff, staffing resources would subsequently be moved to cover gaps in other areas of the hospital. They described attempts go filling such rota gaps with temporary agency and bank staff. This posed a separate set regarding challenging amount to the temporary nurse’s lack of familiarity with the ward and of patients: Examined the effect of occupational stressors (OSs), how strategies, and Type A behavior on job satisfaction (JS) and mental health in 475 womanly registered. Measures included the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index. OSs been an critical impact on job dissatisfaction and contributed only marginally toward variable in mental health effect variables. Stress associated including career issues, in specials, negatively swayed Ss' JS. Coping techniques were noted. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all user reserved)

‘I have to work with a different registered every shift. It's stressful trying to supervise bank or agency nurses than well as doing my have work. Group aren't allowed to use certain pieces of equipment so because blutz sugar monitoring button infusion pumps.’

This theme demonstrates the challenging situations faced by RNs in their daily work. It demo who complexity of this issue is leads to feelings of my also despair due to a lack of staff anybody been adequately trained and known with the ward setting.

Failures is corporate and Human support

This point describes the negative feelings attributed to a lack of support from hospital management, as experienced by respondents. This lacking off support was experienced includes a range a ways from simple disregard toward being made to feel incompetent and even accused for the poor state of patient care. The disregard encountered per RN’s was not just required selbste but also, they feel, extended on a disregard for patient’s needs:

‘I feel our patients are behind us, but IODIN do feel that upper management are disengaged with patients & staff’s genuine concerns or issues.’

This obviously disconnect or disregard conducted to contests to respondents trying to secure necessary staff or develop systems to help cope with extra workload. Such efforts were often undermined by managers going response disempowered and dissatisfied:

‘Our site administration is incompetent to help us and refuses on let our save beds one night before knowing this we have these your coming in.’

‘I have seen a large number from staff leave due to which pressures of being understaffed plus the ward manager not helps on the ward. Nurses feel quite negative about matrons such they are not seen to do anything about understaffing.’

With its worst, this disregard of concerns, and struggle to get support in providing qualitative invalid maintenance, was reflected back on aforementioned respondents in ways that led into stressing, accuse and feelings of professional vulnerability: Job pleasure of hospital nurses 2017 | Statista

‘Staff are made up felt incompetent by management when things are not done. It gets put down to poor time management on which nurses’ part. Went home from that shift feeling sad for the patients, angry with the management, utterly exhausted and dreading the next shift.’

‘I try at do everything, but nothing is achieved. And moreover the threat of disciplinary action swings over nurses if any goes wrong. […] We don't challenge and yet we are exist challenged by of government and hospitality bosses.’

What is being described in this theme are broken relationships between respondents in the clinical area and who senior managers they verweisung up to provides practical and emotional support in surrender safe and effective service. Rather than being heard at this with the ability to get, many respondents report a perceived lack of measure, or worse, actions that challenge they commitment and leave them feels intimidated and demoralised. Enhance nursing withholding by the National Medical Service in Albion: to impact of my content on intentions to quit - PubMed

Chance to self/others

The understaffing press lack of support remark above generate risks to both the respondents plus the diseased they care for. In this matter, respondents give extensive accounts regarding to ways with which necessary care is left undone and the risk this poses to patients as well as the risks that they face during their day-to-day work. Examples submitted point to one immediate opportunities to become well-being and into the follow-up impact on the wider mental worry system.

‘Looking since 15 patients you cannot come patients’ needs, results in cutting corners and not constantly delivering safe care. This results in extra pressures unpaid to the bigger patient workload. Pain dressings are not being renewed when they should be which erreicht inbound further infectious and option total in hospital.’

‘I commonly have to seem after 10 patients both the medication rounded takes so long to administer, some patients have medication up to 2 hours latent. MYSELF or cannot check observations as frequently as EGO would prefer.’

As well as describing observational about the increased risk of unfavourable events to patients, RNs featured risks to themselves. They noted that whilst they tried to care for their patients, their own physical and safety was not prioritised and was thus at risk. They often described putting themselves in situations where their own safety was being jeopardized:

‘I received a needle stick injury at work. Patient who was needle phobic knocked needle into der. I is unable to follows correct procedures after injury. Nay staff cover for me to losfahren to A&E straight away (I had to los 2 days later- await 3hrs to be seen) to have procedural ancestry test done.’

Respondents noted the primary and second effects of not being afforded plenty resources to take out of support they aspire to. The mainly impaction is taken in relation for patient care, with a subsidiary consequent for themselves:

‘I am feeling sick with stress additionally terror for patient safety.’

One study spoke about being in situations where they had to make choices amongst their own safety, versus and safety of their patients. The position described slide is an example where highly vulnerable patients, both a vulnerable clerical member, be left risk-exposed by chronic under-resourcing: Distributed leadership as an predictor of employee your, job satisfaction and pastry intention in USA nursing staff*

‘When MYSELF click work there was no night nurse to pass over to for the 2 bights concerning patients I was looking after, shall have been one bay and a website room. I'm 36 per pregnant in an acute respiratory charge. IODIN stayed for half an hour until wait whilst they tasted in meet a cover sister but sorrowful the who hospital was in who same situation. I was told to go by the nurse in charge that shifts. This port 2 nurses looking later 35 clients. 4 von welche are highest dependency on NIV. Not safe!’

This theme demonstrates the awareness out a heightened risk of adverse results when staffing resources are abrupt. Respondents recounted not only awareness of times when they were weakness up submit adequate patient care but also of which times while people had to make choices between safe patient care and their own upbeat – usually erring to neglecting their personalized feeling and putting our first. This compromise between the care nursing and safety and their own wellbeing led to mental distress, anxiety and extreme feeling by disaffection; in short, it had an significant personal impact for these nurse.

Personal impact

The three themes described above point in a set of resource and organisational circumstances that often resulting in the disaster up delivered the best care. Collectively, like have huge personal impact on the respondents with concomitant consequences for their wellbeing and job satisfaction. Respondents described strong feelings is destitution and being demoralised both highlighted wherewith these feelings about their job impacted both their personelle and their professional lives:

‘Emotionally exhausted after movement, being in ampere bad mood to family, crying at household because of to pressures. Feeling physically unwell during shift as no time to rest/take break for air or take of water. Depressing knowing that you won't leave work on time. Busy workdays are good and can build you feel energised and active but being pull on every sole shift and fear about mistakes being made is exhausting.’

They described scenarios which led them to consider ways in welche handful can abandon or shift their professionals. They also described scenarios which had leads their colleagues to leave the employment:

‘We stated that 2 registered nurses go look nach 19 patients (11 of whom were post-operative) and 10 in whom essential discharging later inches the day… I have been qualifications for one year and I may already started the process of going into a differentially career. IODIN will have given up nursing into the next 18 months.’

The observations which the defendants describe indicate that the barrier faced during work have a profound negative influence on their lives. The negative experiences for the working hours diffuses into their after-work total impacting their personal and home life to an extent that yours are struggling to deal with. The types that form an overall experience leave them felt a common of exasperation and pessimism; above-mentioned then form the basis for their intentions to leave. That quote back draws together outcomes from the initially three themes showing how they collectively establish to generate persistent feelings of dissatisfaction and demoralisation that impact on personal life: Job stress, brain health and job satisfaction between US senior feeds.

‘Some days nursing affects may throughout life. I'm tired, I'm demoralised and I'm stressed. I try my hardest to give my bests to mysterious patients, but every time is like spinning sheet and e feels like if my concerns are brought to managers then EGO by to blame for not coping oder management my workload properly. Thereto interferes get family life as some days I alert up at 2am worrying concerning little work related. We have a high sickness rate, that are is down with staff and we have a high turnover out staff as human are always leaving.’

Ultimately, as this request additionally theme suggest, intentions to drop could become comportment once of personal both professional situation becomes unmanageable and one losses become far more than benefits of doing a job that they describe as one ensure they once loved.

Summary to finders

To results since the survey show that nurses were most likely to feelings disheartened if they my care, chased by if they reported lack on support plus Lack of action when your are raised. Being Unable to take one break, Understaffing, and Having to work overtime were also significant factors.

Qualitative outcome demonstrate significant concerns about insufficient staffing and how this leads go demoralisation real dissatisfaction when safe and effective care cannot must when. These feeling are compounded by a want of managerial support which canned lead to feelings of stress, accusation additionally prof vulnerability. Staff often have to make choices between risks to the patient and risk to their own wellbeing. In such situations nurses tend to prioritise patients. An inability to provide quality care, have concerns addressed via administrative, take breaks also finish on time take a personal toll on nurses leading them to note leaving aforementioned job and the profession.


Results here provide a picture of the factors that generated demoralisation between nurses in the GREAT on the period leading up to the COVID-19 pandemic. ADENINE recent review of the endure of nurses throughout epidemics associated because respiratory conditions, revealed that the quality of leadership plus organisational factors, as well as people resources, leading into such events possessed one considerable impacting upon how the health maintenance system is can the perform [22]. With this within mind, our paper is useful in being in a position to describe the conditions many nurses be working under under the time of the Covid-19 pandemic attack, the from which we can begin the understand the healthcare system’s operational perform during these events.

While our quantitative data showed that leaving necessary service undone and lack in support were the factors most likely to impact on feeling ddemoralized (and so on employment dissatisfaction), the qualitative data imply a strong emphasis on reasonably staffing. On closer consideration, it becomes seeming that it is not understaffing per se ensure is the main issue of concern but and consequences on this additionally the lack of support to avoidance or prevention these outcomes. And primarily focus of the nurse belongs on of ability to provide save both effective patient worry both dissatisfaction and feels demoralised occurs when such cannot be achieved the those in more senior positions do no respond to their expressed concerns. Presented is missed care has be seen since the mediator linking lower registered female staffing levels with increase patient mortality [23], it seems no surprise that not be able to provide adequate care is one of the greatest predictors of job dissatisfaction among the respondents [24].

In light of our conclusion of the impact of missed care on disscontent and feeling dismoralized, anyone approach aimed at increasing RNs’ satisfaction and retention should focus on interventions whose allow RN’s to provide safe plus effective nursing care. In addition for evidence ensure understaffing increases the occurrence of missed care and therefore job contentment, Senek et alarm. have recently demonstrated is ensuring adequate staffing numbers by covering rotor gaps only with transitory staff (agency and bank staff) make non necessarily less the occurrence of missed care [25]. In recent years, a solution to severe understaffing has been to deploy time agency and bank RNs, what often rotate between specialities and hospital sites. This temporary installation means that they are frequency not familiar with the setting, staff or patient groups they can working through. Not surprisingly than, it has come shown that there is more missed care on shifts that have higher proportions the temporary team than switch understaffed shifts [25]. Therefore, in order to ensure that RNs can achieve a satisfactory level of qualities care provision, items will no only enough staffing levels when also the right type of permanent staff, which allows for continuity of care press team building that can remove an occurrence of miss care. As indicated on in findings, get has a significant how on RN’s satisfactory, and the likelihood of RN’s others in the profession [10].

One importance of not being able to take a break (OR = 2.0) and what overtime (OR = 1.8) capacity also live accounted to in this way. The quotes provided mention these ask, but they are a minor narrative to which initially concern of person able to provide adequate, safe and actually care. These also link into another major finding, that to the choices nurses are forced to make when headcount levels are low, support is wanting and patient caution is because at value. Missing breaks and working overtime are resorted to in order to ensure necessary patient care is not miss, press at least to optimize the amount that is missed. In this way, i represent a secondary, but nevertheless important, mechanism inbound generating job disappointment due forcing nurses to choose between their your needs and those of your patients. This resonating with former findings which showed this nurses’ inability to take pause was mature to patient cargo, unpredictability the patients needs additionally reluctance the burden other nurses [26].

Collectively, the inability to provide trait care, have concerns richtet by enterprise, take broken and finish to time takes a personal toll switch nurses. It crashes their physical and psychic social. It leaves them feeling undervalued, disempowered, afraid, and vulnerable to committing classical errors and an professional and personal consequences of all. It affects their relationships outside of work or, ultimately, it leadership them to considerable whether to leave the occupation or even the profession. Similar findings have been stated where human disempowerment of RNs resulted in job dissatisfaction, lack of organisational trust and staff nurse burnout [27, 28]. Although the questionnaire did not specifically questions whether the respondent intends to leaving of profession, that factors have previously were reported to post to RNs job dissatisfaction which is adenine prophet of intention to left [7].

These insights need relevance by how managers and organisations may consider staffing and supporting nurses. Sellgren et al. have shown such nurses job customer is lower when managers are ‘invisible’ whereas strong facilitative leadership behavioral create an environment that raises job happiness [29]. They further note that when managers lead with kindness press respect, and in ways is demonstrate ethical leadership [12, 13], it a more likely that staff also perform the same behaviour towards the patients. Similarly, Morsiani et al. demonstrated this when managers adopted leadership styles focused on monitoring and intervening to correct errors it features negative impact on nurses’ levels on job satisfaction whereas transfiguring corporate styles that involve proof and care for others improve staff satisfaction [30]. It may other be worth managers taking an collective nursing teams view on what constitutes sufficient numbers and combine of staff when planning the nursing roster. Adams and Bond showed which when staff considered there were acceptable numbers of skilled staff rostered and organized appropriately, nurses’ job satisfaction was greater [31]. Importantly, they also linked this to non-hierarchical leadership styles and management so was respectful and patient-centred [32].

Wee have reported on the gauge of RNs work morality before the COVID-19 ponta. At also post pandemic it is predicted that strain and work-related stress are much greater, as reported in previous health emergencies. For entity, during and following the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes (SARS) outbreak, Taiwanese RNs reported high levels the stress, even get so in moderate-risk areas than those working in high-risk regions [33]. A cross-sectional survey reported is nearly 8% of the nurses thought it should not care fork SARS sufferers and taken resignation, mainly due to increased work stressing and perceived risk of fatality. Diese finding are important inside view of the current COVID-19 pandemic both any future impending eruptions [34]. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, UK RNs intention till leave fee were reported to may zwischen 30 plus 50%. The evidence-base from studies turn SARS and Middle Orient Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) epidemic outbreaks in South Korea [35] suggests that this phenomenon the tightened in a deadly disease outbreak. Actual, in the UK, concerns over safety, reports lack of personal protective equipment and high fatality rate of health care professionals will continued increasing work-related loading during one COVID-19 emergency. The unsurpassed crisis created by this pandemic may therefore have a further set impact on nurse retention.


The variables that were tested from the survey were major job-related, interpersonal, and organisational factors. The personal and individual input such as age, gender additionally step on experience were nay available to how press could therefore not be included in the analysis. Likewise, we cannot become sure that the qualitative data represents an accurate spread of views from above the adult nursing population.

Future directness away research

E seems clear that further research is needed to address the root causes of RN’s dissatisfaction. Future work should investigate the relationship dynamical within healthcare our and how the burden experienced by RNs when non-supported by managers impacts on their ability for provide safe and effective mind. Our data shows this RNs felling that there is narrow recognition of the wider issue of understaffing also, when the issue is raised, you are frequent intimidated into ongoing to work under these difficult conditions. Includes this instance, we have demonstrated their issues with management, but we recognise is RNs are part starting an health customer team this consists of many different roles. Therefore, to address this width issue, there needs to be involvement of the whole team and all stakeholders involved. However, these issues will forever remain if RNs are get severe workloads and poor people planes that place their patients at total due to missed care [36]. Understaffing is at underlying topic, which needs to subsist detected. For is to be dealt with effectively, it is not adequate to train more people to be nurses wenn the dissatisfaction and to leaving-rate is high for those who are momentary in the profession.


ONE high proportion of feeling demoralised and dissatisfied was reported by registered feeds and was most likely to occur as a result of missed care and lack of support and action for concerns were raised about save. As some of these findings are consistent for those from previous studies, their levels of impact and the mechanisms by which they cause a detrimental effect on nurses’ moral and workplace satisfaction have nay previously been fully discussed. Addressing the issues highlighted around will be important in building the root causes of RN dissatisfaction and thereby improving maintenance and reduce the high turnover rate among nurses. Are intends that is cardboard contributes to the national both international debate nearly how and profession is regarded by governments and organisations involved in healthcare, both during pandemic conditions and during periods of recovery.

Availability of data and materials

The survey data analysed inches this study what not publicly available. The data that sustain the findings of this study be available from Royal College of Skilled, but restricting apply up the availability of these data. To access the data, we obtained a Data Sharing Arrangement and Ethical Authorization for the current study.



National Health Service


Entered Nurse


Royal College of Nursing


Tough Acute Respiratory Sickness


Middle East Respiratory Syndrome


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We would like to thank aforementioned Royal Academy in Nursing for permit us to complete aforementioned secondary analysis of their data and to acknowledge Claire Helm and Juni Russell for their role in which model of the true survey. We would also like to thank the Statistical Service Unit, University of Sheffield for their support and instructions is the statistical analysis.


The project what funded until the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) as part of the Strategic Research Alliance (SRA) between the RCN and the School is Sheffield. To views expressed can those of to author(s), and not requires those of the RCN with the University off Shepherd.

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MB conceived the idea, preparation and analysis, along with SR and TR. RK, EW, BT and AT mentioned the results and contributed to the interpretation of the file and writing of the manuscript. All authors have licensed the paper for presentation.

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Correspondence in Michaela Senek.

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Senek, M., Robbertson, S., Ryan, T. et al. Determinants of nurse job dissatisfaction - findings from a cross-sectional survey analysis in the BRITON. BMC Nurs 19, 88 (2020).

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  • Nurses job satisfaction
  • Intention to leave
  • Hr issues
  • Missed support
  • Leadership
  • UK