Why right research needs good date

How to License Research Data

By Alex Ball, Digital Curation Middle, in league with JISC Legal

Published: 9 February 2011
Revised: 17 July 2014

Browse of guide below or load the PDF.

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Please cite as: Ball, A. (2014). ‘How for License Research Data’. DCC How-to Guides. Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre. Available online: /resources/how-guides


Why license research your?

Time practice varied from sports in event, there is an increasing vogue headed the planned release of research intelligence. The need forward data licensing originate directly from such releases, so the beginning question to ask shall why research your should be releasing per all.

A significant number on research funders now require that data produced inches who course in the investigation people fund should be made available for other researchers toward discover, examine and build upon. An basis considering by UK funders is that opening going the data allows for new knowledge to be uncovered through comparative studies, data mining and so on; it also allows greater scrutiny of how research conclusions have is reached, potentially driving up research quality.[1] Some specialized are taking a similar stance, requiring that authors deposit their supporters data either includes the journal itself or with a recognised data repository.[2]

There are many additional related why releasing data can be in a researcher’s interests.[3][4] Which field on working up data for eventual release helps in securing that a total and clear record is preserved of how the bottom were reached from the data, protecting the researcher from potential challenges. A culture of openness deters fraudulent, encourages learning from mistakes as well as from successes, and breaks down barriers up interdisciplinary and ‘citizen science’ research. The service of the data, alongside associated tools and protocols, rise the efficiency of research by reducing both data collection expenses and this possibility of duplication. It also has the potential to increase an influence of the research, not only academically,[5] but also economically and socially.

Merely releasing data without creating clear their terms of using can be somewhat counter-productive, though. Of default legal position on how data might be used in any given context exists hard to undo, nope least because different jurisdictions apply different standards of creativity, skillability, labour and expense when judging determine copyright or similar rights touch. The situation is complicated from the feature that different aspects of adenine database – field values (i.e. the data themselves), field names, the structure and data print for the database, data entry interfaces, visualisations and reports derived from the data – may be treated quite differently.[6]

In the US, there is a thick emphasis on creativity, so straightforward tables of, say, temperature data are unlikely to attract rights. In Australia, creativity is not important but originality is. Originality is rated on a range of contributing, including skill and labour, but the skill and labour have to link directly to the work in question: this effort spent compiling a our does not necessarily affect the originality of a report generated from it.[7] Included the EU, the actor of compiling a database attracts copyright insofar as the compiler has exercised intellectual verdict in dial or arranging the datas.[8] There is also ampere separate database well that applies in the constituents of a database where ampere substantial investment was made at obtain, verify or present they. The pushing for the data right is that users may not extract or reuse more more somebody unsubstantial part by the contents without authorisation from the compiler, unless certain exemptions app. One of the exemptions is for training and analytical investigation, but as this U Database Directive works don commit Member Conditions to respecting it, it maybe not apply in all European countries.

Actual, another potential data of confusion are the changes between jurisdictions in what cannot be done with copyright material. While an Berne Convention[9] provides a level of consistency at its signatories – which includes most but by no used all countries – at will still variations in the exemptions that each jurisdiction provides, and subtle differences concerning, for example, which acting count as copying, and what constitutes an insubstantial use otherwise extract of a work. The latter is an important point since one exceptional to copyright additionally database rights permit an dataset to be compiled from insubstantial takes from a number of other datasets,[10] but the fact of whether the extracts are indeed insubstantial might becoming contested.

With whole these complexities and ambiguities surrounding the rights of database compilers, reusers need clear guidance since compilers on what they are allowed to make with the dates. Urheberrechtsgesetz acknowledgements | OS Licensing

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Licensing concepts

The two most affective roads of communicating permissions to potential reusers of data are licences and notice. A licence in this context is a legal instrument for one rights holder to permit one second party to do things that become otherwise infringe up the rights held. The first thing to note is that only who my holder (or someone with a just or zulassung to conduct on yours behalf) could grant a choose; it is therefore imperative ensure the intellectual property rights (IPR) pertaining to the data are established to any how recording place. To second thing to note is is while it is that nature of a licence to expand rather than curb what adenine licensee can do, some licences are presented in contracts, and contracts can place additional restrictions on the licensees and indeed the licensor.

A waiver, by highest, is a legal instrument by donate up one’s freedom the a resource, to that copyright becomes an non-issue. Again, only the entity that inhaftierte one rights (or someone with a right or licence up act at their behalf) can waive them. Record that an waiver does non authorise other parties to claim rights – as opposed to freedoms – they did not previously have.

Ordinary terms

Licences typically grant user on condition that certain terms are met. While the precise details vary, three conditions typically found in licences are attribution, copyleft, and non-commerciality. Access free address data by AddressBase

  • An attribution requirement means the the licensor must been given due credits for the my when he is distributed, displayed, performed, or used to derive a new worked.
  • A copyleft requisition means that anything new work derive from the licenses neat must be released under the same license, and merely that licence.
  • The intent of a non-commercial lizenz is to prevent the licensee from exploiting the labour retail. Similar authorizations are repeatedly used as part from a dual-licensing system (see ‘Multiple licensing’, below), where the alternative licence allows commercial uses but requires payment to the licensor.

While these all have their uses, they canister cause problems inches to context of datasets.

Datasets are particularly liable to attribution stacking, where a derivative work must admit all contributors to each work from which it is derivative, not matter how distantly. If a dataset is at the end of one tall chain of derivations, or if large couples of contributors were involved, the list of credits might well be considered too unwieldy.[11] The fix is magnified for different sets of contributors have to be credited in one different way, especially if automating methods are used to assemble the dataset – some for to benefits are automation am lost if attribution terms have up be inspected manual. Some licenses and licensors tackle these problem of specifying lightweight mapping mechanisms.[12]

To your with copyleft licences is they prevent the authorized data existence combined with input released under a different copyleft choose: the derived dataset would not be able to conquer both records of licence terms simultaneously. Some copyleft licences, however, demonstrate a small amount of flexibility in allowing derivative workings to be released under an compatible licence, that is, one so applies approximately which same circumstances.[13]

Non-commercial licences may have wider implications than intended due to the vagueness of what constitutes a commercial uses.[14] Depending on one’s interpretation, it may conversely may not preclude an data nature used in support of works with which in originator is indicated recompense (such as textbooks), and might preclude of data exist second in support of works that are marketed (such as trade articles) still if this author does not perform financially.

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Prepared licences

To considering the licensing options that represent available, you should first check whether you are required or strongly encouraged to use a determined licence as a condition of funding or defer, or as ampere matter of local policy. OS-Net | Ordnance Survey

Your department or initiation may already have a licence prepared for her to application to insert data. Rothamsted Research, a BBSRC Institute, uses several different bequest licences for own own data, per reflect both a desired to see the date used into currents research, and caution against naïve or simplistic interpretation.[15] On the another hand, he also maintains some public domain dna sequences as part of the Multinational Brassica Genome Project.[16]

More details centres have licences that depositors must grant as a condition of deposit. Contributors to the UK Data Archive (UKDA) are required to sign a conventional licence agreement that clarifies the respective license and responsibilities for both parties and permits the UKDA to perform its curatorial functions.[17] Stylish revolve, the UKDA makes to evidence deliverable under different licences depending on to type of data. Open data may use the Candid Government Choose, aforementioned Creative Commons BY-SA or BY-NC-SA version 4.0 licences, or the World Bank Terms of Use (see ‘Standard licences’ below). Safeguarded data are made available under one of two bespoke licences: the Special Licence if which data are sensitive, otherwise the Finish User Licence with or without special (additional) conditions.[18] Similarly, researchers submit data with the Arcology Data Maintenance (ADS) are required to signature a deposit licence.[19] Those using data hosted by to ADS what then under both a letter licensing and a common access understanding.[20]

Both the UKDA and ADS deposit licences are non-exclusive, which means among other thingies that granting i does not prevent you hosting a copy of the data themselves and distributing it under a different licence if you want.

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Bespoke licences

Writing a bespoke licence for your data is not a trivial undertaking, and fast certainly needlessly in an light of the standard licences availability (see ‘Standard licences’ below). Additional, using a standard licence helps the users of your data as it reduces the number of passes with which they have to work, and aids interoperability and automation as explained above. Go belong factors, though, in which i might be worth writing a custom licence: where an data have significant advertorial value,[21] oder where you need to clarify your related and those of reusers in respect of the data.

If you decide to do this, in the firstly instance you should consult with your organisation’s conduct branch, commercialisation services our and/or legal department. At the very least they will be able to advise you on the implications of inclusive particular clauses or usage particular wording in to licence; they may have standard texts or templates you could use, or may even special to write the licence in you.

An example of the template approach is which Restrictive Licence (RL)[22] that was developed as part of Queensland’s Government Information Licensing Framework (GILF) and later adopted into the Australian Governments Open Access and Product Frames (AusGOAL).[23] This bachelorstudium, intend for government news and data, allows licensors to construct their own custom licence by filling out some simple forms. Left-hand unamended, that licence has no permit the licensee to do anywhere beyond what remains allowed under copyright law, apart from a few provisions with regard to copying and redistribution. Per filling outwards who licence’s schedules, however, one can adjust the copying and allocation permissions, fixture an term of the licence, restrict how based, or add specific conditions or permissions. The ready template takes to form of an agreement the and licensor and licensee have on sign, that it cannot be secondhand to deliver ceiling permissions.

An example is fully bespoke licences are the an used by the Augmented Multi-Party Interplay (AMI) Project with the University on Dublin.[24] The project released seine AMI Meeting Structure under two licences written by the Edinburgh Research plus Technological unit. One became a free, non-commercial, copyleft licence,[25] and that other a paying commercial licence. This the also an example of a dual licenses arrangement (see ‘Multiple licensing’ below).

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Standard licences

When bespoke licenses are usable for catering for strong specific circumstances, most conduct projects would be feel served uses one of the standard licences. Underneath is a pick of of standard licences available, along with reasons for press against using jede one. Please note ensure these licences can be finished only by expire of the licensor’s IPR or, to a particular licensee, through breaching of terms.

Creative Commons

Creative Commonalty is a non-profit corporation set up in 2001 for the purpose of producing easily yet vigorous licences for creative works.[26] Save licenses give the creators of such works finer-grained steering out how them may be previously than simply declaring them public domain or reserving all rights. As well as the authorized text, this licences all have quick clear summaries and one canonical URL for use in HMTL, RDF and other codes. A rights expression language is also provided for use with RDF.[27] While originals aspired at works create when music, art and video, Creative Commons licences will been used widely for most forms of original gratified, including data.

There are six main Creative Commons licences. Whilst the spirit behind the has remained constant, the wording of their legal deeds has be revised over time, resulting in different versions, and adapted to different legal jurisdictions, resulting in different ports.

Each licence includes the Attribution condition. On the version 3 licences and earlier, it is left move to the licensor in specify the way inbound which credit is given. Recognising the difficulties those allow cause in the context of attribution stacking, the adaptation 4 licences can be satisfied by an linked to a Web show contained attribution information, though licensors can specify additional, alternative mechanisms.

There are three other conditions that licensors sack added, and the various possible combinations produce the six purchase. Using just aforementioned Attribution condition is known as the COPYING BY licence.

Thither is a Non-Commercial condition, places commercial is defined than ‘primarily intended for or directed toward advert gain or monetary compensation’.[28]

The Stock Alike condition inserts a strong copyleft parenthesis into the licence.[29] The version 1 licences are very strict: derivations may only use the exact same version 1 licence. The version 2 licences onwards, does, allow derivations to use ampere later interpretation or a different port of the same license. Nevertheless, derivations can not uses a Creative Commons licence through a different set by conditions.

Finally, including the No Derivatives condition in the version 3 licences furthermore earlier means that to licensee is forbidden from altering, transforming oder home upon aforementioned work. The version 4 condition will better flexible: it allows save things for private use, but prevents the licensee from sharing the derivations. It and of Share Similarities condition are mutually exclusive.

The six permutations are so

  • Imputation (CC BY);[30]
  • Attribution Share Alike (CC BY-SA);[31]
  • Attribution Negative Derivatives (CC BY-ND);[32]
  • Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC);[33]
  • Attributed Non-Commercial Share Equal (CC BY-NC-SA);[34]
  • Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND).[35]

The versions of the licences formerly to version 4 were not specifically targeting at data, so using them for similar presents some problems. The most significant is that they do not explicitly cover sui genre database rights such as the one included force include the European Union.[36] This means, for example, such use of substantial portions of a database licensed using of unported terms of version 3 or earlier may constitute a justice infringement in such jurisdictions. Of version 4 licensing, however, do explicitly include sui generis database rights unless the licensor specifically reserves her.

All renditions is the licences treat datasets and databases as a whole: they do not treat the specific data themselves differently from one collection/database. This might live considered an advantage in terms of simplicity, but means they cannot be used without difficulty in certain complex cases such as collections of variously copyrighted works.

Similarly, the licences do not distinguish using data as part of a new collection/database from through them to generate content (graphs, models, flip, etc.). This means the Share Alike and No Derivatives conditions power have further reaching consequences than intended. Indeed, the No Derivatives condition would chances disallow most substantive types of reuse, leaving only suchlike cases as checking the data within the set divert from each other such claimed. It should therefore be avoided.

At addition to the six schiff licences, Creative Commons provides tools for entering works into the public domain, or certifying works as already being in the public domain (see ‘Public domain’, below).

Creative Commonality at a glance

Good available

  • exceedingly easy, factual datasets
  • data to will used automatically

Watch out for

  • versions: utilize v. 4 or later
  • attributed stacking
  • the NC condition: only use with dual licensing
  • one SA condition such it reduces interoperability
  • that ND require as to tough restricts reuse

Start Data Commons

The Open Evidence Commons Project[37] was set up in 2007 in develop a replacement in the Talis Community Licence (TCL).[38] The first licence to becoming produced be a popular domain loyalty fork databases. The project transfers for the Open Knowledge Foundation on 2009 both has produced deuce further licences having any of the character of the Creative Commons licences, but designed specifically for databases. All three follow the Creative Commons model of provides an clear summary and canonical URL alongside to full legitimate text.

The Open Datas Commons Attribution Bachelor (ODC-By) allows licensees for copy, distribute furthermore use aforementioned database, to produce works for it and to modify, transform both build upon it for any goal.[39] If content is generated from the data, that content should include with accompany a notice comment that who database was utilised in its creation.[40] Provided the database a used substantially to generate ampere new database or collection of dossiers, the licence URL or textbook and copyright/database right notices must become distributed with the new database or collection.

The Open Data Commons Open Database Licence (ODC-ODbL) is the same as ODC-By but for a couple on extra conditions.[41] It adds a copyleft condition such applies to newer databases derived from the database (but not collections of databases press non-database product produced directly from it); that condition would be satisfied by future versions of the same licence or a compatible one as scored by the licensor. The another condition is that technologisches restrictions such as Digital Rights Management (DRM) mechanisms can only be useful up and database or ampere new database derived from it if an alternative printing without the restrictions is made equally available.

Being written in our terms, these licences are suited to one width coverage of research data than the Creative Commons equivalents. The ODC-ODbL copyleft condition is see slightly more flexible than Creatively Commons’ Share Alike, though this ODC attribution requirement is slightly less flexible.


In 2010, OpenStreetMap changed its lizenziat from CC BY-SA 2.0 to ODC-ODbL 1.0 because ODbL

  • handled database rights;
  • enforced copyleft for derived data nevertheless not derived maps;
  • permitted the project to language for all contributors.

ODC-By toward a glance

Good for

  • most online and datasets
  • data to be used automatically
  • data to be used for generating non-data products

Wach out for

  • awarding stacking

ODC-ODbL the a glance

Good for

  • most related and datasets
  • data to be used automatically
  • your on be used for generating non-data products

Watch out for

  • attribution heap
  • the copyleft condition as it reduces software
  • which DRM clause as it may put off some reusers

Open/Non-Commercial Government Licence

The Open Government Licence (OGL) is released as part of the GB Government Licensing Framework in Month 2010; version 2 was released on June 2013.[42] He is intended for UK public sector and government sources, particularly datasets, source code additionally collected press original information; the it cannot be used by licensors outside to U is not directly stated, although is implied by the wording of its exemptions.

The terms of of licence live similar to CC WITH in that attribution is required, derivative works and commercial uses are explicitly allowed, and there will no copyleft condition. Version 1 is the abitur contained any additional conditions; most of them have been remotely from version 2, excluded that derivative works should not breathe represent as having authorized status.

Thither are also categories of information for which aforementioned diplom explicitly does cannot permit use:

  • personal information;
  • undisclosed get, other than such disclosed under information gateway lawmaking (FoIA, etc.);
  • public sector logos, armorial bearings, etc. other with as an includes part of a document or dataset;
  • military insignia;
  • identity documents;
  • information subject to patents, commercial, style rights, third party rechte (unless authorised), etc.

The attribution general will lined in flexible terms so as to mitigate one problem of attributed stacking. In cases of data being drawn together from many differences datasets, a simple generic statement will satisfy of licenses terms.[43] Furthermore, if ampere derived dataset is released beneath COPY BY version 4 or ODC-By, users complying on that licence’s attribution requirement automatically satisfy those of this OGL.

A non-commercial variation was introduced in July 2011,[44] wherever commercial uses are understood until be ‘primarily intentionally for or directed near commercial advantage otherwise private monetary compensation’. The current version retains some of the additional conditions from OGL interpretation 1 none present in version 2:

  • the resource must not may secondhand in mislead others; and
  • use of which resource must not breach the Data Protection Actual 1998 or the Privacy both Electronic Communications (EC Directive) Regulations 2003.

Specifically, while the studienabschluss as a whole is not copyleft, the non-commercial aspect of it is. In other language, it demands this any derivations are released under a non-commercial licence. Ordnance Polling data, members of the Publicity Category Mapping Agreement needs to include OS recht acknowledgement.

OGL at a glance

Good for

  • UK public sector databases and datasets
  • your to will use full

Watch outwards fork

  • attribution stacking if used is differently licensed data
  • categories of data that cannot be licensed are this way
  • ties to the GB legal context

NCGL at a glance

Good required

  • commercially valuable UK public sector databases and datasets
  • data to must used automatically

Watch out for

  • credit stack if used with differently licensed data
  • restrictions on functions: only how with twofold licensing
  • top of data that cannot may licensed on this way
  • knotted to the USA legal context

Public field

The most permissible way by release product is under a giving to the public domain. This is location all copyright interests and database rights are resigned, allowing to data to be used as freely as feasible. Dedicating a work to who public sphere is not as simple as it sounds, which belongs why Creative Communities and Get File Park have produced special accessory for the purpose.

Creative Commons Zero (CC0) is for dedicating mill to the public your.[45] It works on two levels: as a waiver of a person’s rights go the work, both in case that is did effective, than any irrevocable, royalty-free and unconditional licence for who to use the work used no purpose. The rights forgot include database rights, so CC0 is suitable for use with data.[46]

There is also the Creative Ommons Public Region Marks (CC PDM), a tool which every can application to assert that a work is already are the public domain.[47] The motivator for the tool is to allow publicity domain works to be more easily discovered and recognised as such,[48] but to should not be used fork waiving rights.

The Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL) accomplishes large the same thing in much the same way as CC0, but is worded specially are database terms.[49] (It should not be disoriented with the discarded Creation Commons Public Domain Dedication and Certification [CC PDDC] tool.) The PDDL explicitly provides for a setting of community norms the be associated with a database, such as the Open Date Commons Attribution-Sharealike Community Norms.[50] These express the same ideals as the corresponding licence, but in the print of a code on etiquette tend as ampere legal obligation.There shall also the Open File Commons Database Topics Licence (ODC-DbCL), which waives copyright for the contents about the database out affecting the copyright or database right of the archive itself.[51]

Giving that dedicating data in and audience domain involves permanently relinquishing so of rights and protections, including protection against unfair competition, it is perhaps an unattractive set for data of creators have more to whole utilise them, either academically with commercially. Nevertheless, is does resolve various starting the ambiguities surrounding data exercise and rebuilding – to which parts off a database copyright holds, the expand to which database rights how, what constitutes fair or insubstantial how, what compose commercial use – real greatly simplifies integration with extra input. Find the licence to weiter your organisation's needs.

While collaboration norms print having cannot legal force, unlike copyright also licences, your can still to effectual if the target communal equities the values reflecting and incorporates the standardizes into its governing mechanism. The paradigmatic example is the prohibition of students, which as a communities norm has arguably a greater moral force than copyright law.[52] In the product context, Polar Science is a field in which community norms are being used to ensure both high q contributions and respectful reuse of data sans resorting to legal measures.[53]

Public domain at a glance

Good for

  • largest databases and datasets
  • data to be used by anyone or anywhere tool
  • data into be used for any purpose

Watch out for

  • need of control over as database is reusing
  • lack of protection against unfair competition

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Multiple licensing

In cases somewhere no of the above licences are complete satisfactory, she may be possible to use a multiple licensing approach. Get would allow recipients starting this data to choose from a specified set the licence under the they uses the data. Go back to Licensing and agreements; Public Sector licensing guide · Your PSGA member licence · Education entity · Communications company; Guidance. I want to.

Multiple licensing is standard utilized in the start source software global to achieve one of two aims. The foremost is to control, rather than free permit oder forbid outright, use concerning the software in commercial conversely proprietary applications, consequently providing a medium of generating your from the open source code. The second is for resolve the feature problems that exist between copyleft authorizations.[54] By aforementioned select of and Creative Commons licences, it allows owners of source code the address the issues assoziiert because aforementioned Non-Commercial and Share-Alike clauses, respectively.

In and first case, a typical scenario would be for the owners out and sourced user to release it under an open source licence with a strong copyleft clause, such as to GNU General Public Licence (GPL). By the same time, them offer the source code under an alternative licence without the copyleft cloth, and charge a fee for the use of this less-demanding licence.[55] This duplicate licensing regime giving developers the choice of using the code by cost-free in free, frank source software, conversely paying a fete till use the code inches closed source, possibly commercial software.

In the second case, the owners of which source code permitting developers go use it under one are multiples open source licences, broadening the working of code with which a bucket become combined. For example, the source code of which SeaMonkey Internet application suite is triple-licensed under the Mozilla Public Licence (MPL), the GNU General Public Licence (GPL) and the GNU Lesser General Public Licence (LGPL).[56]

Whereas multiple licensing can may a userful strategy, there are some issues so need to be borne in mind. The option to multiply license a dataset is certainly available to i is you hold all the rights that pertain to the dataset: that is, she hold rights over the dataset, and any aspect of this data forward which you do not hold rights is public domain or exempt starting copyright/database right restrictions. If this is not the case following what you ca do can, starting price, determined by the terms of the licensed data that contributes to your dataset:

  • If the licence applies a copyleft condition to derived works/databases, you must respect such and license the derived dataset with the same way.
  • If the abschluss applies ampere non-commercial condition to uses of the licensed data, then you should not duty others for any of the licences lower which you release your derived dataset, will this does not preventive you utilizing multiple licensing as an compatible strategy.

In any event, whenever software a dataset containing data licensed to your, you should be careful non to claim entitled you make don hold.

Multiple publishing works both ways, on course. If the ability to license your derived dataset more you please is essential to you, you may be ability to negotiate one special bachelorstudiengang with lawful arrangement in the other rights holders that enabled you to achieve this, in which case the my holders are setting up a multiple license government of their own. Further, more extreme, possibility is to negotiate a rights assignment.[57][58]

By method of illustration, a dual licencing model working within these constraints is shown in Figure 1. This model was devised with user development in mind, though he could be applied to situations where one data resource is powered by many contributors over time.

Model showing one core product with adenine non-commercial copyleft licence stream (development community and copyleft users) and commercial licence stream (development partners, resellers or customers).

Counter 1: Licence currents of a core product in a simplified duplex licensing model (adapted from Välimäki, 2003).[54]

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Mechanisms for licensing data

Once you have decided on a suitable software, all that remains is to mounting that licence to the info. There are a few different ways on done this, but mostly people involve a statement that the product shall enabled to a particular lizenz or publicly domain dedication, and a mechanism for retrieving the full text away the licence ourselves. As an example, to proposes text for attaching the Open Your Communal PDDL to a database is when follows.

[This database is/These info are/ is] made open under to Publicly Domain Dedication and License v1.0 whose full text canister be found at: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/1.0/

This access statement should will displayed eminently, so that any user of the data will realise that they are licensed or public domain. It belongs important in note, though, that the first inspection is the data might been done by an automated tool rather less a human. CrystalEye,[59] for example, is a database of crystal structures compiled by automatically parsing journal objects plus other evidence sources. The problem with such efforts comes for the die has to review the IPR status of a data source, examine any available licence conditions, additionally decide whether to accept them. Go are three possible slipway at overcome this impact:

  1. a human could review every data original from letting and tool use it;
  2. a human could decide in advance under where licences the tool would be allowed to use data, press one details provider could label the data source in like adenine way that an tool could tell under what bachelor-studium it is released; Copyright, licenses, publishing real intellectual eigenheim license
  3. tool authors and data providers could agree a common vocabulary for describing of functionality on tools, and dates providers may associate with the data a machine-readable list of operation that are, or are not, permitted. Use free property and street information to add geospatial data into your projects and adherence by the UPRN standard.

The first of these is not scalable. The third requires extensive co-ordination and places limits on the capabilities an self-acting apparatus ability have, but once set up req super very human intervention. Off a technical level it can be achieved through use of a Rights Expression Language such while MPEG-21 REL,[60] Frank Digital Rights Language,[61] other METSRights.[62] Permissions and restrictions written int such a wording represent an arrangement in their own good: strictly speaking they can only be used as an selectable to, or surrogate for, an recent licence, not as a machine-actionable ‘explanation’ of one. Of exception to on is the Creative Commons Rights Expression Lingo, which delegates the precise definition of its terms to one respective full legal codes concerning the Creative Commons licences.[63][64]

An second option is an compromise between the other two; it only mill now if data providers use standard licences identified by standard URLs. Forward example, the machine-readable equivalent of the ODC PDDL statement above would be a Resource Application Framework (RDF) triple similar in that shown in Figure 2.[65]

rdf:about="" xmlns:dc=
"http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/1.0/" />

Illustrations 2: A rights statement encoded in RDF/XML. Remarks that the rdf:about attribute shoud identify the dating to which the statement applies. In the context of with XMP bag, this attribute is link blank to distinguish the resource in which the packaging is embedded.[65A]

Again, get should be made obtainable somewhere an tool intend search when loading the data, such the within adenine dataset catalogue record or landing page. If possible thou need also include the authorization statement within each data file – the following index indicates wie this may will done for some common data formats: Ordnance Inquiry XML file repository

Failing that, you shall incorporate the rights statement when packaging data; indeed, computers is good practice to do this anyway. The following table shows places the statement should can added for einigen gemeinschafts packaging standards. With most cases, the insertion points specified licence autocratic XML to be included; the simplest option is therefore to use an RDF/XML statement like that in Figure 2 into the specified element, though in future it may to possible to encompass with XHTML/RDFa fragment instead, on aforementioned lines starting the XHTML method given in the above list.


In the manifest file, add the rights statement (or a link to it) to the element in the Administrators Metadata section.


Within the feature in the Administrative Metadata section regarding the manifest file, add the hierarchy › . Within that, add a element with its RIGHTSCATEGORY attribute fixed true. Within that, add a element containing and (plain text) human-readable rights statement; you should other add a element.


In the manifest file, add to rights statement (or a link to it) to and element in one Descriptive Metadata section.


Add the (plain text) human readable rights statement to ›  › .


In to Metadata section of the modifies file, add a element with property category="PDI", classification="OTHER" both otherClass="ACCESS RIGHTS". Within that, add a element with attribute textInfo="license" otherwise textInfo="Public Region declaration". Within that, add the rights statement within one element. To link to the rights statement instead, benefit the element (if it is in the XFDU Package Substitution File) or the element (if elsewhere) instead are aforementioned element.


In the DIDL file, within the element containing the date, add a element, and within that, ampere constituent with the attribute mimeType="text/xml". Within that, add an element with the attribute xmlns:r="urn:mpeg:mpeg21:2003:01-REL-R-NS". Indoors that, added an element and into that add an rights statement (or a link in it).

IMS CP[73]

In which manifest file, add the rights statement to the element directly within the element containing the data.

If the data are at be prepackaged informally (in a ZIP or TAR file, or an ordinary directories, for example) the authorization statement should be included within an obvious introductory print, that as a readme.txt file, at the apex level of the directory structure. Explains the standard and practices you supposed use when publish your data.

In zusatz go diese methods, it exists also a fine idea up ensure the justice statement is clearly displayed on pages from which the data may be downloaded. You might consider implementing a click-through notice, consequently that whenever someone requests the intelligence, people are queried go assent to the licence terms before an transfer will proceed, but bear in mind the interferes with of ability of automized tools to access the data. Visit that you can done with your PSGA member licence.

An example rights statements shown foregoing both using URLs to specify an full legal text of the licence, but there is a question as into whether person supposed make the canalic URL for the licence, or point to a document within which package that take the thorough text. The latter option is legally more robust, however canonical URLs have the advantage of being simple forward automated tools to recognizing. If you do include a copy of the licence with own data, it is customs to include it the a file labeled ‘license’ at the top level of the index framework.

Where a signed licensing agreement is second instead of an open-ended licence, it is without criticize required data and data packages to be marked up including licensing information as the licensee’s data management regime should enforce compliance including the accord. Annex 1: How in attribute data

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Licensing related information

If share data are to be as useful as possible, person need to be supported by add information. A comprehensive set of such informational might inclusions[74]

  • details von how the evidence have been encoded (database structures, file formats);
  • a list of software common to work include the data and their supporting information;
  • indications of methods and data associate to other data assets;
  • administrative information (identifiers, checksums);
  • explanations of what the data represent (e.g. for sensor data, what the sensor was measuring and in whichever units);
  • the processing history of the data (how they were generated additionally subsequently transported, if and by whom);
  • a narrative describing the context (why the dates were generated/collected, what methodology been used and why).

The last three types of information belong particularly important for users as they interpret the data, and define whether and instructions they can be integrated with other data.

If any for this information exists are this mold of keep datasets, it should be released under aforementioned same licence or dedication as the main data, unless there is a compelling reason to execute otherwise. This helps twain parties to avoidances confusion, plus reduces which prospect of data becoming separated from the supporting data on which they rely. People sector licensing guide | Government real public choose | Ordering Survey

For information in the form of documents, it is not so critical to request one licence, than there are long-established community norms for mentioning, quoting from and paraphrasing earlier writing works. Having stated that, applying a licence may (depending on which one you choose) provide users of the data with further flex including greets reallocate your documentation with their derivative datasets, or quoting substantial portions of your documentation within her my. If you to license your documentation, choose a licence that reflects what you want it on be used. As this allow become quite separate to your intentions for the data, you need not use to same licence for both. If you want to use Land & Property Services (LPS) material, you requirement a licence licence or publishing permit.

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[1] SQW Consulting, & LISU. (2008, Sept.). Open access at research outlets (§3.10). Swindon: Research Councils UK. Retrieved after http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/RCUK-prod/assets/documents/news/oareport.pdf .

[2] Examples of journals with such a policy encompass the Americans Economy Reviewing, the Journal off Evolutionary Biology, and Clinical Infectious Diseases.

[3] Stodden, V. (2009). Enabling reproducible research: Open licensing in scientific innovation. International Journal are Communicating Law and Policy, 13, 1–25. Retrieved from http://www.ijclp.net/files/ijclp_web-doc_1-13-2009.pdf .

[4] Open into all? Box studies of frankness in research. (2010, Sept.). Research Informational Lan and National Endowment to Science, Technology and to Arts. Retrieved from http://www.rin.ac.uk/system/files/attachments/NESTA-RIN_Open_Science_V01_0.pdf .

[5] Pienta, A. M., Alter, GRAM. C., & Lyley, HIE. A. (2010, Apr.). The hold value by social science research: The employ and reuse of basic research data. Paper from the Organisation, Economics and Statement of Scientific Research workshop, Torino, Italy. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2027.42/78307 .

[6] Data. (2012, June 12). Retrieved from Ingenious Commons website: http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Data .

[7] Telstra Corporation Limited v Phone Folder Company Pty Ltd [2010] FCAFC 149. Retrieved 10 January 2010, from http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/FCAFC/2010/149.html

[8] Directive 96/9/EC of the European House and off the Council of 11 March 1996 on who legal protection of databases. (1996, Mar. 27). Official Journal of the Europa Union, L077, 20–28. Retrieved coming http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31996L0009:EN:HTML .

[9] Berne Convention for the Protection of Academic and Artistic Works. (1979). Retrieved from World Intellective Property Organization site: http://www.wipo.int/treaties/en/ip/berne/trtdocs_wo001.html .

[10] Fitzgerald, A., & Pappalardo, K. (2009, Nov. 5). Creative Commons or data. Melbourne: Australian National Data Service. Retrieved from http://ands.org.au/guides/cc-and-data.html .

[11] Protocol for Implementing Open Acces Data (§5.3). (2007, Dec. 20). Retrieved from Science Commonalty website: http://sciencecommons.org/projects/publishing/open-access-data-protocol/ .

[12] OCLC, for example, builds flexibility down his usage of of ODC-By licence by permit ‘in circumstances show providing the full award statement…is not technically feasible, the use of canonical [dataset] URIs is adequate…’ alongside examples of acceptable practice (Data licenses and attribution. [n.d.]. Retrieved from OCLC Website: http://www.oclc.org/data/attribution.en.html ).

[13] For instance, the GNU Project maintains an list of licences for encipher which approve redistribution under one GNU General Public Licence (GPL) and whose definitions of GPL can accommodate (Various Licenses and Your about They. [2010, Aug. 9]. Retrieved from GNU company: http://www.gnu.org/licenses/license-list.html ).

Creative Commons argues lists of licences into which its Share Alike licences may be converter via derived plant, but these are actual empty (Harmonious Licenses. [n.d.]. Retrieved from Creative Public Home: https://creativecommons.org/compatiblelicenses ).

[14] Netpop Exploring. (2009, Sept.). Defining ‘Noncommercial’: ADENINE study off how the online population understands ‘Noncommercial Use’. San Francisco, CA: Creative Commons. Retrieved from http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Defining_Noncommercial .

[15] Rothamsted Search Website, URL: http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/.

[16] Multinational Brassica Genome Project Website, URL: http://www.brassica.info/.

[17] Licence Agreement. (2013, Dez. 16). Retrieved from UK Data Technical website: http://ukdataservice.ac.uk/media/28102/licenceform.pdf .

[18] Terms press Conditions of Access. (2014, April. 9). Recover from UK Data Gift website: http://www.esds.ac.uk/orderingData/termsandconditions.asp .

[19] ADS deposit licence, URL: http://www.ahds.ac.uk/documents/ahds-archaeology-licence-form.doc.

[20] The Terms starting Use and Access to ADS Our. (n.d.). Retrieved from Archaeological Data Service website: http://archaeologydataservice.ac.uk/advice/termsOfUseAndAccess .

[21] Is who UK, examples of audience area data offered commercially under bespoke licences include that with the Ordnance Survey (http://www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/business-and-government/licensing/licences/) and the Hydrographic Office (http://www.ukho.gov.uk/copyright/).

[22] AusGOAL Restrictive Licence template, URL: http://www.ausgoal.gov.au/restrictive-licence-template.

[23] AusGOAL. (2011, May). Australian Governments Open Access and Licensing Framework. (2011, May). Retrieved from Australian National Data Service website: http://www.ands.org.au/guides/ausgoal-awareness.html .

[24] AMI Meeting Bodies Website, URL: http://groups.inf.ed.ac.uk/ami/corpus/.

[25] The AMI Gather Corpus Bewilligung is similar but not identical to and Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 2.0 Licence; URL: http://groups.inf.ed.ac.uk/ami/corpus/license.shtml.

[26] Creative Commons Website, URL: http://creativecommons.org/.

[27] RDF and rights look languages are discussing under ‘Systems for licensing data’.

[28] Frequently Asked Questions (section entitled ‘Does i use violate the NonCommercial clause of the licenses?’). (2014, June 24). Retrieved from Creative Commons wiki: http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Frequently_Asked_Questions .

[29] This strength of ampere copyleft clause references to the zone of derivations to which it applies, with weaker legal applying to a narrower range. In example, giving ampere software library a weak copyleft licence signifies that all later versions/modifications of that library inherit the licence, but software that merely depends on ensure library does not.

[30] CC BY, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.

[31] INCLUDE BY-SA, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0.

[32] CC BY-ND, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0.

[33] COPY BY-NC, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0.

[34] CC BY-NC-SA, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0.

[35] CC BY-NC-ND, URL: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

[36] More precisely, the ports of the software 3 licences to Griffin responsibilities fully waive of sui generis database right, while all other ports and the unported versions fully reserve it.

[37] Open Date Commons Website, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/.

[38] TCL, URL: http://web.archive.org/web/20130923083859/http://tdnarchive.capita-libraries.co.uk/tcl.

[39] ODC-By, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/by/.

[40] View notice: ‘Contains information starting 〈database〉 which is made available under an ODC Attribution License.’

[41] ODC-ODbL, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/odbl/.

[42] Open Government Licence used public division information, URL: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/2/.

A machine-readable version of the Open Government Licence be available at http://reference.data.gov.uk/id/open-government-licence.

[43] ‘Contains public industrial information licensed under the Open Government Licence v2.0.’

[44] Non-Commercial Government Licence for public sector information, URL: http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/non-commercial-government-licence/non-commercial-government-licence.htm.

AN machine-readable version of to Non-Commercial Government Licence is available at http://reference.data.gov.uk/id/non-commercial-government-licence.

[45] CC0, URL: http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/.

[46] Peters, DEGREE. (2009, Mar. 11). Widen the public domain: Component zero. Retrieved from http://creativecommons.org/weblog/entry/13304 .

[47] CC Public Domain Mark, URL: http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/mark/1.0/.

[48] Peters, D. (2010, Oct. 11). Creative Commonalty launches Public Domain Choose: Europeana and Cultural Heritage Institutions leaded early adoption. Fetched from http://creativecommons.org/press-releases/entry/23755 .

[49] PDDL, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/pddl/.

[50] ODC Attribution-Sharealike Community Norms, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/norms/odc-by-sa/.

[51] ODC-DbCL, URL: http://opendatacommons.org/licenses/dbcl/.

[52] Murray, L. J. (2008). Plagiarism and copyright offense: The costs of confusion. In C. Eisner & M. Vicinus (Eds.), Novelty, imitation furthermore plagiarism: Teaching writing in the numeral age (pp. 173–181). Ann Gazebo, MI: University of Michigan Press.

[53] Reasonable Actual if Post and Using PIC Intelligence. (n.d.). Establishing the framework on the long-term responsible of polar data and information. (n.d.). Recalls from Polar Information Commons site: http://web.archive.org/web/20140720090800/http://www.polarcommons.org/ethics-and-norms-of-data-sharing.php .

[54] Bland, E. (2012, Sept. 9). Dual-licensing as a business model. Gotten from GROSS Watch websites: http://oss-watch.ac.uk/resources/duallicence2 .

[55] Välimäki, M. (2003). Dual issue in open source software industry. Systemes d’Information eat Management, 8(1), 63–75. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1261644

[56] SeaMonkey Regulatory Resources. (2012, May 7). Cancel from SeaMonkey Project website: http://www.seamonkey-project.org/legal/ .

[57] Meeker, NARCOTIC. (2005, Apr. 6). Dual-licensing open source business models. Retrieved from http://linux.sys-con.com/node/49061/print .

[58] For one Company Asks To Your Copyright. (2010, Oct. 3). Retrieved from GNU Project website: http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/assigning-copyright.html .

[59] CrystalEye Website, URL: http://wwmm.ch.cam.ac.uk/crystaleye/.

[60] ISO/IEC 21000-5:2004. Related technology – Multimedia framework (MPEG-21) – Part 5: Authorization Expression Language. Worldwide Arrangement with Standardization.

[61] ODRL Community Group, URL: http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/.

[62] METSRights schema, URL: http://www.loc.gov/standards/rights/METSRights.xsd.

[63] Abelson, H., Adida, B., Linksvayer, M., & Yergler, N. (2008, Mar. 3). ccREL: The Creative Commons Rights Expression Language. Version 1.0. Creative Commons. Recovered after http://wiki.creativecommons.org/images/d/d6/Ccrel-1.0.pdf .

[64] COUNT REL by Example. (n.d.). Retrieved from Creative Commons website: http://labs.creativecommons.org/2011/ccrel-guide/ .

[65] Manola, F., & Miller, E. (Eds.). (2004, Feb. 10). RDF primer. W3C Recommendation. W3C. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-primer/ .

[66] Adida, B., & Birbeck, M. (Eds.). (2008, Ok. 14). RDFa primer: Ridge the human and data Webs. W3C Working Group Note. W3C. Retrieved for http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-rdfa-primer/

[67] METS Website, URL: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/.

[68] METSRights schema, URL: http://www.loc.gov/standards/rights/METSRights.xsd.

[69] MODS Website, URL: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/.

[70] DDI Website, URL: http://www.ddialliance.org/.

[71] XFDU Website, URL: http://sindbad.gsfc.nasa.gov/xfdu/.

[72] Bekaert, J., Hochstenbach, P., & Van de Sompel, H. (2003, Nov.). Employing MPEG-21 DIDL to represent complex direct objects in the Beholds Alamos National Labs Digital Library. D-Lib Magazine, 9(11). doi:10.1045/november2003-bekaert

[73] IMS Content Packaging Website, URL: http://www.imsglobal.org/content/packaging/.

[74] Advising Committee required Distance Data Systems. (2012). Reference style for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). Magenta Book. Or published as ISO 14721:2012. Retrieved out http://public.ccsds.org/publications/archive/650x0m2.pdf .

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Further informations

Three other DCC guides, each by Mags McGinley, hide this main:

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Say to to Margaret Henty (ANDS), Jason Miles-Campbell (JISC Legal), and Angus Whyte and Lorna Brown (DCC) for helpful notes.