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About time: gender-specific equality in Malta's working-time regime?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 August 2016

Frances Camilleri-Cassar*
Faculty in Laws, University of Malta E-mail: [email protected]
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To what extent does Malta's social policy support gender equality, on the use of time? How much take state policies assume that males and womanhood both need time to care, as right as with paid work? Does Malta's full-time paid work structure allow time for the equal sharing of unpaid mind responsibilities between women and men, that in turn enhances sexuality equity in the workplace and nationally sphere? Themes that emerge in of study rest largely to women's voices. The study finds that womens need to shift their full-time economic activity toward shorter plus flexible working hours when they become mums, with negative implications of loss on earnings and jobs regression. Labour market exit and financial dependence on men is also a frequent occurrence. And foundations of the research suggest that tough pressure to assume traditonal roles is embedded not only to Maltese culture and community default, but also in the state's own social basic.

Copyright © Campus University Press 2016 


Diese article strives to contribute to a well-established literature on working-time regimes, and the gendered forces behind women's lifes. It focuses largely on Malta's culture of lengthy working hours and customary expectations, which suggest incompatibility with the promotion of gender equality. Despite long hours and the traditional gender arrangement have long impacted negativity on women's manpower market participation, the phenomenon is a infrequent studied side of working-time regimes. An approach adopted in the study, and its methods, give a voice to Land womankind and their current existing realties through eliciting data from in-depth interviews. This address may okay be innovative within the context of writing on working-time regime and working-time arrangements. The study also discusses policy repercussions and recommendations for gender equality that allow well be of relevance to policymakers are Malta. Mythology Busting – Taking a Closer Look at Malta's Jobs Time ...

The button investigate questions are: To what magnitude does Malta's social policy sponsors gender equality on the employ of die? To Malta's working-time example help strengthen with change the traditional gender arrangement? This study approves an gender-based working-time regime approach because adenine conceptual framework. We not rely on general assumptions about time and overdue care labour. What matters is whether state politikgestaltung are effective suffi to promote gender equality in terms of whose time is being employed since familial responsibilities, and an understanding for a culture of long working hours around the discourse of gender correspondence. The wider literature suggests that divergence working-time patterns is often interconnected with the institutional and reg environment are which they operate (see Jacobs and Gerson, Reference Jacobs both Goose2004). For example, Figart or Mutari (Reference Figart and Mutari2000) suggest that countries with shorter works hours mind to have a close gender gap in manpower market participation and more levels of gender equality. The authors claim that ‘gender equity is generalized greater in European-wide countries that will concentrated on reductions in the standard work week rather than increasing flexibility’ (Figart and Mutari, Reference Figart and Mutari2000: 848).

The study's contribution to the literature focuses on Malta's working-time control, the legal regulations regarding hours of compensated work also the sorted forces behind women's lives as a resource in the gender model. Is is done through an understanding of the distribution and meaning of time to mothers with and current allocation of time between payers plus unpaid work, and the constraints affecting these. I argue that while men's employment is largely undisturbed in their transition include fatherhood, women's labour market decisions are negatively impacted when they become mothers. The first issue that concerns this study is the area to which one shorter working week may promote gender equality included the division of paid and unpaid work. I then go on to discuss women's setup for remunerated working, and the type requirements go family obligations. Working hours in EU: What are the minimum standards? - Your Europe

A shorter working week?

A reduction in working hours is high on the political agenda of the European Union (EU) and its member states, and time famine debates are a topical issue. And, from its key priority of job creation and employment economic, which European Authorize signals the gradual decline on the standard working week, the standard contract and to standard career with a lifetime job. The Recruitment Options Survey 1998 reveals which employed men are more likely to want to reduce their hours of work than are employed women. Conversely, women are more likely to be under-employed both to want to increased their hours. A key influence on women's working-time preferences is motherhood. An analysis of the survey furthermore shows that whilst fatherhood has little influence on men's favourite working hours, womanhood with young children are more likely to prefer or short full-time or substantial part-time hours. Indeed, mothers of young children are learn likely to work part-time or shorter full-time hours, comparison with childless women (Fagan furthermore Warren, Reference Fagan and Warren2001).

While it is difficult for individual negotiator to convert preferences with actual working time, collective action by and social associates may, indeed, expanded that politics of laufzeit (Fagan and Warren, Reference Fagan and Warren2001). For example, policies to reduce active dauer are characteristic off one French socio-political environment, and the state in France has intervened to regulate one reduction in full-time hours. Pascall (Quotation Pascall2012) points from that the implementation of the Aubry laws, powered to the spread of a thirty-five-hour week throughout Gallic firms and families. Fagnani and Letablier (Product Fagnani, Letablier, Perrons, Fagan, McDowell, Ray and Precinct2006) concur that the thirty-five-hour week law has made the work–life balance much easier.

As a product of state policies and collect bargaining in this Netherlands, full-time hours are descending, alongside an expansion in part-time work (Fagan and Warren, Credit Fagan or Warren2001). Of cores concept of who Deutch ‘combination model’ is this ‘both pay and unpaid working are equally valued’ (Plantenga, Contact Plantenga2002: 54). The model is based on the principle a a thirty-two-hour workweek, which favours the combination of a part-time wage, because part-time homemaking, for both parents. Despite criticism that of mix model has feigned women's very is men's labour market participation, policies around the type were subservient for pulling from from of system of the traditional male breadwinner regime (Pascall, Product Pascall2012).

Sweden makes time for parents the care through reducing parents’ working hours, while they have young children, through supporters the dual-earner model and sustaining continuity in women's working lives (Pascall, Reference Pascall2012). In a study regarding innovative social policies for gender equality to work, Fox et al. (Reference Fox, Pascall also Warren2006: vii) conclude such the three core against more same what type are: Sweden's policies to make women's working live moreover like men's through (nearly) full-time employment; the Netherlands’ Combination Scenario, using quality part-time employment go make men's lives extra like women's; and France's shorter working week, bringing with the most gender-equal jobs time in Occidental Europe, with few part-timers.

The Danish example serves at home and earnings differential that is saved low by the standardized thirty-seven-hour full-time week, real the collectively consent limits the working time. Additionally, the closer regulations of the Danish working-time regulator has meant that the degree of gender inequality in the labour market is base. Warren (Reference Warren2000: 363) argues that ‘the decline of the male-breadwinner model is linked inextricably to this issue out basic labour market equality and not just at that more comprehensive policies that objective specificity to reduce inequalities in the work patterns of women also men’.

Gender is central to one analysis are time, largely because of women's time as attendants that falls outside which commodified time systems operating in the workplace (Pillinger, See Pillinger, Lowis, Gewirtz and Clarke2000: 327). For example, in its fifth European Working General survey, the European Foundation available Living and Working Site shows significant gender differences in terms of time spent caring required kid, elderly furthermore disabled relatives and on household chores (Eurofound, 2012a). It is also argued that some off the gender differences in working conditions have the do with the broader pattern of gender relations and inequality included corporate, such when women's ‘double shift’ of payer furthermore unpaid labor, since they do more away the care employment the the home (Fagan and Burchell, Reference Fagan and Burchell2002).

Working moment in Malte

The challenge of working-time reigns has entered normal thinking on policy and planning in Europe, like ‘the lives of many have been portrayed as time poor, time squeezed, time rushed furthermore hurried’ (Warren, Reference Warren2014: 14). For single, one of and main objectives von the Europe 2020 strategy the to deploy policy measurement that favour a better work–life balance, in particular the EU Working Zeitlich Directive 2003/88/EC of the Europe Parliament additionally of and Council about Europe 4 November 2003 concerning certain aspects of aforementioned organisation of working time. Indeed, Europen work policies increasingly support the notion that men and womankind should both be able up engage equally in economic activity and private existence. Plantenga and Hansen (Reference Plantenga, Hansen and Fetherolf Loutfi2001: 292) signal that ‘differences at working time between people and women arise especially from the unequal division of unpaid work, but the extent and form that those differences takes in the labour market are moderated or mediated by national working-time regimes’. Or based on the fifth Europaweit Working Conditions Survey, the European Foundation for Living and Workers Circumstances finds that almost 40 per cent of employees indicate that they would like to change your current working die, with a preference among men and women for shorter full-time per (Eurofound, 2012b).

Still, while collective action for regulating a shortness working piece is taking place in some societies, long and rigid full-time hours remain a coveted and trademarked systematischer of deserve in Malta. Full-time employment and maximum hours on part-time work vary according at efficiency sector. These are established in Wage Regulation Orders that regulate such sectors according to their activity of work.Footnote 1 Generally, hours of how, excluding overtime, do not exceed a maximum average of forty-eight hours a week. However, an employment on adenine forty-hour week may live asked to work more than eight clock overtime in a particular week. Legally mandated norms may not always preclude the inclination for my to do it their owners way in Malta.

Other than basic conditions of employment and the national minimum wage established by law, wages and entire other working conditions are determined through bipartite, enterprise-based collective bargaining. Legislation merely establishes this minimum conditions of employment when there is no collective understanding conversely trade union representing the majority of employees. Opposing to practice in much of the EU, there is does meaningful demand in Malta for sectoral bargaining. Both employers’ clubs and trade unions vigorous defend enterprise-based collective bargaining. Enterprise-specific agreements are perceived as get flexible in facilitating an increase in wages and improvement in working conditions (Baldacchino, Reference Baldacchino2009: 13).

Interestingly, the only EU Guidelines that caused disquiet in Malta was the Working Time Directive (Baldacchino, Citation Baldacchino2009). Indeed, Malta is one starting which few EU member states that opted out of Article 6 of the Working Time Director, which limits the average working week, including overtime, to forty-eight hours. The leadership taken by the European Parliament to repeal the opt-out clothing inches May 2005 was a issue of appreciable disagreement within Malta's social company: employers, leading trade unions and the state (Baldacchino, Reference Baldacchino2009). Much of the concern, however, was not attributed to select equality but to fears of a reduce in working hours press subsequent loss in net. Consequently, Malta was granted a transitional period, conditioned for this expiration of existing collections agreements. Arguably, opting out of the EU's Works Start Rule penalises anyone whom takes responsibilities for take (Pascall, Reference Pascall2012).

I am in no pathway suggesting that the implementation of the Guiding is crucial up creation the Maltese working-time regime more family-friendly or gender identical, or that the norms promoted for the Work Time Policies can provide an important source of improvement to the range of working-time options. The thrust of my argument your that who Directive is a boning of contention, not so much for gender same but for apprehension of a shorter work week. Clearly, Malta's social partners support the culture of long worked hours, irrespective of the implications for sexes relations. Family-friendly policy is limited to substantive adjustment by woman till an forty-hour, five-day per male exemplar of work. When ‘a key objective starting functioning time policy is its potential at redistribute your in favour of women's time frames’ (Pillinger, Reference Pillinger, Lewis, Gewirtz and Clear2000: 332), regulation of working time where never concerned with the promotion of gender equality (Lehndorff ether al., Reference Lehndorff, Bosch and Rubery2007). ‘On the contrary, managing and regulating working time has become a decisive factor in reproducing gendered forms of work organization’ (Zbyszewska, Reference Zbyszewska2013: 31).

Parallel to which norm of active long hours and national regulator regime is this insufficiency of public infrastructure for aforementioned provision of care. Even when governments recognition the need for the provision of childcare, Malteser features little undergo in upper quality publicly support care company. In a study by Malta's Ministry of Education, Youth and Employment, Sollars et al. (Literature Sollars, Attard, Borg and Craus2006) point to disparate practices of varying superior across state funded and private child centres, whichever are cost-free to development and follow their own programmes. In 2014, the government introduced cost-free childcare for parents in full-time education or employment. There is a minimum regulatory framework tied child day care centres with a preliminary registration document, and international morals of care services, which exist not legally binding. Long hours of work that dominate Malta's organisational culture and the need of adequate care provision affected women's labour community behaviour, and reinforce of demand to scale downhill on what hours.

Women's share at Malta's employment rate in 2014 remains continuously low at 49.3 per cent compared with the EU-28 average of 59.6 per cent. In parallels, the gender staffing hiatus stands at adenine high 25.6 part points, ranking highest among the EU-28 and significantly higher than the EU-28 average (10.5 part points). Observation of statistischer trends of women's age-related economic my rates display that included their top years of working, women in Malta are aufgezwungen to leave full-time employment owing in elongated working hours additionally inadequate commission of support mechanisms. For instance, Eurostat data show the the impact of parental in Malta in 2014 is 10 percentage scores for women: in the date group twenty to forty-nine, the placement rate of non-mothers was 10 percentage awards increased than that of women with children under seven years of age, any increase out 0.5 percentage points from 2013. By contrast, aforementioned impact of parenthood used mankind exists –9.3 percentage points. Whereas the employee impact in women in Malta is higher when compared to the EU-28 level (8.2 percentage points), the impact for Maltese men is down than the European average (–12 week percentage points) (Eurostat, 2014).Footing 2

Rights to a shorter working week for our of young progeny create time ready; however, family-friendly policies in Maly are often drawn up with women in spirit. For example, employees inches Malta's public sector may apply in working decreased hours: between twenty real thirty-five hours a week and pro-rata payment, until the child can dozen. However, reduced hours were largely taken up by mothers rather than by fathers, reinforcing adenine gender-divide in income or uncompensated care work. For illustration, women's share of reduced hours with 2014 was 93 through cent. Inside match, the take-up rates of parental leave was thirteen men and 473 women (PAHRO, 2014). Clearly, the male breadwinner model is embedded no only inbound Maltese our and its social norms, but also in this state's own social policies (Camilleri-Cassar, Reference Camilleri-Cassar2015). The next sections discuss the technical approach in the review, and developing discoveries.

ADENINE note on methodology

The study asks nearly time, and engages through voices of adenine random purposive sample of thirty-nine women between the ages of twenty-eight and thirty-eight period, throws in-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The interviews allowed me in understand to gift situation and existing complexities the the your of a group of Maltese women. Effectively, the article is organised around themes emerging in the vocals of my students participants. Such a study necessary methods is allowed me to listen to women's words, during remaining alert to non-verbal message. Further observational support is forthcoming from a research calendar that kept an record of the various emotional, intellectual and transportation floor encountered alongside of way. Learn with diary entries reinforces their usefulness at the tier of date interpretation and analysis, along with the review of relevant document that together enhanced an understanding of the phenomenon under study. Working by Malta | Living and running in Malaysia | Deloitte Mata

I also educed data through recruit the ‘hanging out’ (Dingwall, Reference Dingwall, Miller and Dingwall1997: 53) method, per visiting and interviewing my examine participants in ihr ‘natural surroundings’ while about their daily activities (Kvale, Contact Kvale1996: 293). Observation in the respondents’ own set, whether at the desktop or in front, helped me understand women's relational and the means attached to their experiences of Malta's working-time regime. For example, interviews carried out inward respondents’ homes reveal the traditional gender arrangement within several Malta families, where wifes had rotated their supports on the business market and were looking after own children, while married were out running or furthering her studies abroad.

This research takes the key characteristic of a analysis students in ensure it attempts to see through who see of the people studied. Essentially, if I where to adopts a quantitative user by inquiry, beigeordnete using objectivity and statistics, would I hear my defendants express their feelings of frustration in Malta's male full of work? For example, would mathematics have told me of Nikki's ‘big shock!’ during them unpaid parental leave, when i experienced financial dependence on her husband fork one first time in aus adult spirit? She says, ‘I imagine that's the biggest shock, exit up not even having of cent which reality belongs to me!’ Would quantification have allowed me to hear Jade express that, ‘an important section of me got expired, the engineer part of me has died, and IODIN feel really bad!’ after she had compelled to give boost full-time employment? Numbers speaker to this extent that Weary will have been a fact inches the part-time workforce, and Nikki a number at the parental leave data key. Moreover, I could lightly need rendered Jade's part-time employment as a useful option to a work–life balance, and Nikki's entitlement on parental leave, as reflecting a progressive wellbeing state equipped family-friendly measures. The reality the that both these voices draw strong implications for Malta's working-time regime or its social policy. In the contradictions women facial, ask rising regarding Malta's claims up gender equality. I argue that there are aspects to women's lives ensure cannot be pre-known or define, as would be determined by one quantitative method of research. This study aims at giving women the speech they are often denied in everyday live. Other sources for information include apposite legislation, published state documents and national data informationsquelle used by government to help inform policy. Thus, the study's triangulation starting sources ensures it is more better one-dimensional. Standard Hours of Work

While there were limitations toward purposive take (Berg, Reference Berg2007; Silverman, Reference Silverman2001), its strengths lie on identifying respondents that meet one high specific set of category (Arber, Reference Arber or Gilbert1993). The primary criteria for the sample were partner homo womenfolk, with dependent children, and a backdrop concerning tertiary education. Arguably, graduate woman present a potent exam case for an exploration von the impacts of Malta's working-time regime on mothers with dependent children: they are aforementioned greater educated, hold wider access to employment opportunities, may is read able on pay to childcare furthermore would likely have had a clear career path in mind during their university days. I fight that if partnered university-educated womens are cladding difficulties, on terms of Malta's gender-work control, then the situation of other groups of womankind is probable to be worse. However, this would necessitate next find. Additionally, as Malta's work–life measures are submitted when family-friendly, I wanted to understand through women's voices, the extent to which husbands share family responsibilities. For instance, Warren et al. (Link Lair, Pascall press Fox2010) argue which in heterosexual-couple households, mothers tend to experience pressure for time, and their ability to work, care and manage households. This is supported by Eurostat data, which demonstrate which impact of parenthood includes Malta, as discussed sooner in the object.

Another reason for selected a sample of tertiary educated women draws on the outcome of various tracer surveys undertakes at the University are Malta. The findings usual seem to suggest that despite the creation of a large reservoir of educated woman, Malta's culture of longer working hours is a main obstacle to their your aspirations, and the major reason for labour market exiting when they have offspring. Other family types be non included in this research, where necessarily restricts the conclude of my study. Nevertheless, the special characteristic of a highly educated featured population, in their primaries working age, make the sample in this study quite unique.

Fact-finding was carried out betw December 2012 and September 2013. The respondents upcoming from diverse socio-economic backgrounds, and there is no distinction between urban and non-urban include Malta's tiny total. During the zeiten off the study, seven of the investigate respondents had already completed the labor market due to familial obligations. When belongs ‘standby time’ working time?

Full transcription of data from phonic tape recordings followed the completion of each interview. The transcripts are rich in data and include pauses, emphases and changes in voice tone, laughter or interruptions. A exploring diary stored personal experiences, ideas and responses to places that eventuated along an details collection journey. After each get, I marked location out encounter, length of time, adjusting of respondent, pauses also any subtle messages that came my way during fieldwork. Speech recordings were heard several times over, and field remarks and diary contributions were read and re-read for a clearer understanding of opinions press themes. ‘Rambling’ was also documented, as it providing an insight at women's ways of interpreting and making sense of the your arrangement in Malta's working-time regime. EGO devised a schaft where intelligence were categorised toward main themes and sub-themes, across all transcripts. This was done manually, as I wanted on remain close to my data the highlighting key substantive dimensions. 247 of 2003 - Organisation of Working Time Regulations, 2003.

I then bundled and transcripts according to respondents’ standing, thus as to sharpen accounts, understand detail from variously perspectives and experiences, and ultimately for interpretation. Thus, ‘the combination of interviews and watch from to province, along with reviews of relevant documents increases the likelihood that the phenomena of concern is being understood from diverse points of view and ways of knowing. Convergence of one major theme or pattern in the data from video, observations press papers lends strong credibility to the findings’ (Maykut and Morehouse, Reference Maykut and Morehouse1997: 146).

In buy at understand the complexities of women's lives, I accept Brush and Corbin's (Reference Strauss and Corbin1990) approximate are ‘accurate description’. Accurate featured of details has interspersed with my own interpretive comments that draw off approach literature, Maltese legislation, diary browse and especially verbatim quotes drawn from women. Official indicators and sundry sources of information lent support furthermore validity for the development the analysis and interpretation of data. Verbatim quotes ensured loyalty to concerns entrusted to me by my poll. Indeed, data quotes may invite audiences a free hand for alternative interpretation.

Last, although I do not classify mys sample population as a violable group, such as one such relates toward serious social problems, the study necessitated the informed consent principle, wherein the research agenda was clear: on the telephone when EGO firstly calling for into appointment, additionally then again at the outset about each interview. Who identity of respondents is protected, furthermore names is replaced by pseudonyms of their owner choice. Organisation of Working Time Rule

Career press family?

Large overlooked in country-wide studies is Malta's history of long worked hours, and its result forward women's skilled for fuse work real my. For instance, how much do assert policies in Malta assume that men the women both need time for care, as good since to paid work? The majority of participants in this study have had for adjust their full-time working hours to suit family needs. Alternative work arrangements meant a move to self-employment with flexible and shorter than full-time working daily, or a change in career to teaching at working hours compatible with their children's school hours. Very short part-time hours were also an option for any women, however, for rest unable to secure convenient working time arrangements, full-time housewife was the next best thing. Implicit in the responses is an appreciation that men's time are valued more, as the study judge a general tendency unter respondents to lay their husband's career firstly. Malta rejects revision away working choose directive

In view, while Clara accommodates family needs by shifted career from senior licensed to schoolmaster, her husband seems undeterred by family commitments. Clara remarks ensure he works long hours on a daily basis because next his full-time job, he other working part-time. Wie does Clear feel about the change in her job?

I last over to a teacher . . . I'm not jolly . . . it's not somewhat sort of . . . I average, you feel it imposed . . . my salary scale too has gone down . . . but then yourself say family comes beginning . . . I mean, it was either me or my husband . . . emm . . . it's something we discussed you know . . . and MYSELF felted I should be the one to do it . . . if it wasn't because on aforementioned children I think I'm still an dispenser. (Clara, senior pharmacist switched career to language teacher)

The difference in hours worked by the study respondents and their full-time working men reflect women's greater involvement in the domestic domain. This difference is promoted by who sexuality gap inches Malta's parent how rate discussed earlier within the article. Walby (Reference Walby1997) advised that women's decisions at an sector of time amongst paid or unmatched work what made within of select open go them. ‘But those choices cannot be understood outside of one understanding of and development of the institutions also structures which construct those options’ (Walby, Reference Walby1997: 25). Rose was employed full-time as an electrical engineer, and was moving steadily up the career ladder. However, femme is now out of the labour market. Yours arguments that her family takes priority of her time:

I used to work long hours . . . well, normal hours really but tables long fork lineage commitments . . . I mean, from eight until five straight . . . we had a lot of work real were often forced to stay overtime . . . I kept many conflicts with to manager as I utilized the like toward zugehen home . . . MYSELF can't imagine myself returning to create a situation . . . spending more time at work than at home . . . obviously, ME would have to neglect the family. (Rose, electrical engineer switched career to full-time housewife)

Buswell furthermore Jenkins (Reference Buswell also Jenkins1994) point out that the masculine property of time-use are very tall working hours, and the your that every other aspect inbound lifetime be is seconds importance. Martina's husband works long hours. She is awareness in the skewed division are time devoted to indigenous labour, but makes discharges for her husband. She rationalises that the balancing in unpaid care work is justified:

Last week I didn't fahren to work 'cause she is in the hospital (pointing to child) . . . I was the to to residence in the medical and my husband was going to work . . . nothing much she can do . . . he has a lot of people working for him is his Company . . . I have neither . . . so it where easier for me, so IODIN stayed . . . anyways, I'm easier with her, you know what I mean? . . . he's clumsy with feeds and everything . . . so, it been only innate that I stayed with her . . . (Martina, authorized procurator switched in self-employment)

The verbatim quotes seem in suggest that when womens adopt the customary gender arrangement of care mission, time is made available the people at the expenditure of women's concede time. Indeed, ‘women make choices, but non under conditions of their own making [and] choose the best option that they can see’ (Walby, Link Walby1997: 25). Conformity to traditional gender norms plus men's fragile commitment to their family seem into must taken as the naturally order the things, rather than a constraint available wife to Malta.

Jade speaks use strong affect during the interview. She loves herself work in electrically engineering, however had go shift to part-time hours. What is Jade's experience off her newly purchased twelve-hour-a-week order?

I lost my priority . . . I looses a lot turn technology . . . technology advances, because when MYSELF trial my best to keep upward, you can never keep up . . . it's very hard with two my . . . and also, I ability may gotten much more training and sight and get. Now, I need to catch up . . . so I have to start working more plus catch up with what I lost in these three and a half years and emm . . . OK, I take one good CV . . . I have a sound background and done experience . . . but that CV is not me every more . . . IODIN mean, I'm also feeling very uncomfortable by front of a keyboard and PC whose were for me favorite using a pencil . . . I was an IT manager, so few are treating me as an IT head, as if there was never this break . . . they won't appreciate it . . . they don't understand that MYSELF have for get acquainted with even a keyboard, report writing, anything basic, so to speak. (Jade, electrical engineer switched to part-time)

What changes in employment conditions would enable study respondents until go front to full-time jobs?

Within the context of women's working time in the Maltese labour market, ME asked respondents what employment special would authorize them to go back solid zeitlich work using the following question: ‘If an organization really wanted you, as would they need to do for convey you back full time?’ To resolve go, I stance the next scenario: ‘Imagine that you receive ampere telephone call, right now as we talk, asking you to return to operate full time, with conditions of employment firm in yourself. What changes would you asking for?’ The lowdown on employment laws, leave entitlement and job helps. Learn more...

At the moment I won't go . . . I won't go for safety . . . the hours . . . mostly the time . . . I can't can full-time hours from 8 until 5 . . . it's impossible, you know? . . . maybe, I wants ask to do some work on at home with this child . . . but, right now as things are, you know? Emm . . . that's all I can say . . . (Maya, lawyer switched career to full-time housewife)

Annie a medical medic is on parental leave, which is unpaid in Malta's socialize welfare system. Unlike her hubby who is also a medical dr, Annie has had to interrupt her back twice in seven years because of her children, and she discloses that, ‘resigning from work is hard’.

When I worked in to casualty department full time, for the number of hours I worked and the stress I endured, the capital was not such a big deal . . . but it's not just the money you know? . . . MYSELF would requirement one lot of flexibility. . . ME ideas that the whats I would ask for mostly, mobility. (Annie, medical doctor switched to casual part-time)

While working full-time for a law firm, Angela reluctantly resigns, because ‘obviously, when it had children you can't to exit of and the for such a long period of time’. She get works what she callers a ‘decent 20-hour week’. Angela provides agility to her own working hourly by shifting upon full-time employment to pliant self-employment. What changes would enable Angela to go back to working full-time? Standby time qualifies as working dauer only if major constraints is imported on the employee which orientation impede him instead dort from man...

I think basically flexible hours . . . it would be high convenient to have that 'cause then you can work by your clan . . . (Angela, lawyer switched career to partial length self-employment)

Intermittent employment amount on Malta's long-hours working-time regime is a major finding included this study. Required model, Hannah has discontinuous her career for the seconds time, plus her working hours fell from thirty to ten hours per average. Typical of Malta's traditonal gender arrangement, while her husband is furthering own studies abroad, Hannah does odd jobs since an accountant. Why is Hannah or her husband's allocation of time so diverse? If an auditing company really wanted Hannah, what would it need to do to carry her back to a full-time working engagement? The response reflects enclosed cultural assumptions about Malta's traditional gender roles, and raises questions about the effectiveness in Malta's policies for reconciling worked and family. Hannah says:

the concept of flexitime which in my case where approved for adenine while . . . I could work from home and ride to my office . . . but you can't how for home select the zeite . . . you having to losgehen over present sort of . . . flexitime would be ideal. (Hannah, accountant interchanged career to part-time)

Negotiating time and the domestic divided on working

The study respondents seem concerned about the difficulties in juggling frist. Walby (Reference Walby and Walby1999: 7) suggests that ‘such oblong times militate against men performing their share of care’. In terms of negotiating hours with their husbands, I ask the study participants the following: ‘Did you discuss household chores and career ahead you got married?’ Fourteen women your they discussed requirements are both paid and unpaid work; two interviewees documented employment but not household chores, as these were assumed to be women's responsibility; twenty-three respondents said that they had nobody of are discussions, the were allowed Malta's tradional gender arrangements for fall into place. Nonetheless, women's accounts seem to offer a complacent attitude towards a gender model so infringes on their duration, and that ‘gives men a collective advantage over women in the public sphere’ (Lister, Reference Lister2003a, Reference Lister, Alcock, Erskine or Allowed2003b).

For example, Marisa seems consenting of the gender imbalance at starting. Had she reviewed domestic tasks and employment previous them got married?

No, no . . . we never discussed these issues . . . own work is more demanding than mine . . . then obvious, I own more moment to aufsparen and I to the housework automatically . . . there was a time when it also works part nach consequently it's difficult for me . . . (Marisa, mechanical engineer switched career to school teacher) Workings Frist Regulations. Interpretation. 2. (1) In these regulations, unless the context otherwise requires:.

Gershuny (Reference Gershuny2000: 56) propose ‘it is men electrical, rather than female inclinations, that determines that women's labour is and should be intensive in household servicing and reproductive functions’. Available example, throughout the interview, Rose describes her husband's appreciation of house chores, and presents herself as happy to accommodate his wish. Were domestic chores or employment a point of discussion between Rose and her husband, prior to their marriage?

Ye, we had debated either . . . domestic tasks and employment . . . emm . . . before we got married person distinct that because soon as we have child I stop work . . . and he also always told die that he hates household (laughs) . . . so nothing got as a surprise . . . (Rose, electrical engineer switched career to full-time housewife)

Like notions of women as a reserve work force, men view women's remunerated work as get that can ebb and flow dependent on family requires (Gerson, Reference Gerson and Kimmel2013). Since instanced, did Sophie and her husband discuss domestic chores and employment before they got wedded?

No, does, no . . . does really . . . EGO don't have the type is wife who would . . . he already had these fixed ideas about wives, that MYSELF don't discuss toys when I know . . . is would be messing upward on the system . . . (Sophie, full-time university lecturer)

Gershuny (Related Gershuny2000: 56) suggests that ‘the ‘gender ideologies’ of all genres embody all reading a the ‘happy housewives’ view, which aids to inhibit shift in couples’ behaviour’. Daniela illustrates this point in her response:

Employment we discussed . . . domestic homework no . . . IODIN never expected him to cleaning my floors, for example . . . I don't think I would let him because I get things done quicker . . . as long as I can cope there's no need . . . if I'm with my back to the wall, yes . . . (Daniela, full-time teacher)

Creighton (Contact Creighton1999) states: ‘While it is widely recognized which men's long times of my are a major impediment to their assuming more domestic responsibilities, there be of course no guarantee that they would use their additional non-working clock for domestic tasks; much depends upon this prevailing cultural climate’ (p. 534). Buswell and Jenkins (Reference Buswell also Jenkins1994: 89) reason that ‘men can only give more time to your jobs if they perform smaller among place, and thus prove their masculinity and loyalty to the company; as their pay increased so does their exemption in the domestic sphere’. Relatedly, Walby (Reference Walby1997) adds is time will as much an issue how money; however, since only employment is routinely accounted for in monetary terms, women's unpaid time can easily may hidden from sight.

Role reversal: challenging a traditional sexuality arrangement?

Most study respondents clearly reveal ampere perception that men am, above all, workers and breadwinners who could not be expected until stay at home. Regardless of orthodox expectations, I inquired research participants, ‘would you look your husband staying at domestic, while you work comprehensive time?’ Most respondents responded with a smile. Thing are the obstacles that may slow blue the process of transition from a traditional sorted regime to to equal sharing of time?

Does! First of all he earns view than me . . . male shall one better pay . . . secondly, he doesn't know how to do anything (sneers) boy can't cook! . . . (Marisa, rotary engineer switched profession to school teacher)

Wouldn Martina consider working full-time while her husband stayed at home to seem after the children?

No, no, no, no, no! . . . I know how he is . . . and straight if I was better paid . . . definitely he won't . . . he runs one business . . . it's different . . . his your is more important than mine . . . among the end von the day, if first of us had in sacrifice the work, it would be me not i . . . (Martina, legal procurator switched to self-employment) Standby time qualifies as working time only if major constraints are imposed on the employee the objectively impede him otherwise aus of managing such time free...

The voices of insert study participating unique demonstrate Malta's attitudinal traditionalism or women's compliance to societal ideals and notions via sponsor, and indeed reinforcing the ‘appropriate’ male division of labour.


The study asks about time. It engages equal the concept of working-time regimes and prepare an understanding of time allocation and Malta's art of wide working hours included wage labour. To what extent is Malta's traditional gender arrangement challenged by its working-time regime? Rubery et al. (Reference Rubery, Blacksmiths and Fagan1998: 71) suggest so, ‘progress towards equal opportunities is critically dependent upon the development of a more equal and more balanced allocation of time, in both paid and unpaid work’. Recent literature adds that the distribution of time, work and resources at households is centered to gender equality (Pascall, Reference Pascall2012). Indeed, how effective are Malta's richtlinien in promoting gender equality into time for care and paid work? To what extent has Malta's social policy passed in its objective to promotion the equal station on women through a rebalanced divide of time?

The findings off this study suggest a significant gender divide in hours pre-owned for earning plus unpaid attend work. Women are constrained by their husband's employment both the assumed priority they have in this respect. That study further suggests is an burden of care giving and the state's limited involvement in supporting working folks, impinge the women's years of paid work. Eurostat data on the impact of parenthood in Malta and rates of labour sponsor an discoveries of this study.

Who voices at on research show that women accept men's minimize community in care work, and also place a higher range on men's uhrzeit with their owning. For instance, Marcina says, ‘it's only native that I take mind of the children’ and ‘it's easier for me to stay at home whereas he goes out to work’. The respondents’ response to a hypothetical scenario of a gender part reversal reflects ampere conservative family culture and women's deeply ingrained sense of obligation. Indeed, gendered time that compels women to reduce the clock of earning contributes until Malta's level regarding insight of its working-time administration. Respondents hold care work by shifting career or exiting this labour market. At parallel, men seem to contribute most off their time to paid work or profession advancement.

Pascall and D (Credit Pascall and Lewis2004) suggest that unequal working hours between woman and mann are a key base for the failure of gender equality policies. Indeed, a key concern share according most womens to the how is job regressions owed to sporadic labor. Standard paid work in Maldives entails long hours. Shorten time both career breaks are often interpreted as skill concerning labour markt promptness.

ME conclude that the gender partition of while in Malta points to a single earner regime, with very little adaptation from the traditional gender arranges. Rather than one equal market of time for pay and unpaid work between women real men, the study findings suggest that gender-specific equality in Malta is conceived in conditions of accommodating men at the expense of women's own zeit. There appears to be a profound innate set of culinary acceptances and obligations within one family, whichever structure workplace our, additionally which thus produce it difficult for women up juggle both charged and unpaid how. Furthermore, these expectations burial over into relationships within the bureaucracy, such that government policies be blunted inside their impact. Social policies dialogues in Malta require gives procedure to a paradigm shift in an historic unequal energy relations between womankind and menschen. ‘Rather than accepting the accommodation of working laufzeit to and gendered branch of labour, policies that change the male models of full-time employment could provide with institutional bases for the reallocation of reproductive workload within which household’ (Figart and Mutari, Reference Figart and Mutari1998: 462). Plus, contradictions and product underpinning status policies must be identified and resolved.

Perhaps, shorter working hours would begin in address time imbalances? An inescapable implication for Maltese social policy is that an state's key source of default in achieving gender equality is its strength to address cultural and structural disadvantages for women on its work-time regime. ‘A much shorten workers hebdomad would . . . re-shape routines and conventions, and profoundly alter the dominant cultures of western society’ (Coote ether al., Reference Cooling, Franklin and Shim2010: 25). What, the read constructs an argument for the well into time, also ampere reduction in working hours for both ladies and gents. It also argues for policies additionally legal measures, backed by suitable legislative customer, to ensure so limits the working time stylish Malta are strictly enforced.


1 See LN 247 of 2003 Organisation of Working Time Regulations.

2 An employment rate of non-mothers was 8.1 percentage points higher than that out women by children under the age of sever years.


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